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Transcript of Tutorial 1
Secrets about Food and People 12.11.2014
20 years old
writes her final exams in high-school
Hobbies: cooking, hanging out with friends
She is a real chocoholic
Health condition: hypercholesterolaemia
Goals: loosing weight
Limbic system vs Prefrontal cortex
Recommendation for food industry
Connect health facts of products to consequences (i.e. health claims)
Cooperation with food magazines
i.e. food preparation and serving methods
Online shopping: less impulsive buying, symbolic products
by Michelle Weijzen, Elise Demaeght & Viola Hara
Table of content
Limbic system vs. Prefrontal cortex
How do consumers make choices?
hierarchy of knowledge
How to change behavior of food choice
recommendation food industry
How do consumers make choices?
How to change behavior of food choice
Alter environment; constrain behavior
Change availability of options
Target automatic associative processes
Activate/inhibit existing associations
Create new/ altering existing associations
Presentation mode: real vs. symbolic
Inadequate health literacy, as measured by reading fluency, independently predicts all-cause mortality and cardiovascular death among community-dwelling elderly persons. (Baker, 2007)
In the end, Anna decides to study HFIM in Venlo and there she finally understands how healthy foods actually influences the body in a positive way. She eats much more healthy food now, her blood cholesterol levels are lower and she has reached her desired weight.
sources of information can vary a lot and must not necessarily be reliable (i.e. doctor, magazines, television, newspaper, books, internet, nutritionist...)
"individual’s ability to read and interpret health information needed to make health decisions" Sharif, 2010
Anna studies really hard for her final exams, but she is often snacking since she is very stressed and does not do sports. She feels satisfied while eating a chocolate bar or snacks but after a while she feels guilty because she already gained a few pounds within the past weeks.
Anna wants to lose weight but cannot really control her cravings for sugary and salty foods. She has not much time to prepare her own food since her mother cooks rather unhealthy food.
(i.e. consequence-related knowledge)
(look, taste, feel)
(selects, purchases, prepares food
must be targeted since many
food buying decisions do not involve attention but rather habits/mindless routines)
2 levels of nutritional knowledge
basic level: attribute-level knowledge about food, i.e. read kcal content, fat level...
higher level: consequence-related knowledge, i.e. "it's bad for my heart", "it makes me fat"
if attribute-level and consequence-related knowledge come together the likelihood of consumption is increased
due to greater self-referencing
may change long-term behavior
Knowledge of consumer can be on different levels
it is important to differentiate between various types of knowledge
person usually doesn't buy functional food
if consumer links knowledge of food's attributes to personal consequences
basic premise: all behaviors are determined by balance of encouraging forces and discouraging forces (incentives and barriers)
systematically determine what barriers prevents someone from eating something
(must taste good)
Kurt Lewin (famous food scientist)
* 3 key-factors which need to be targeted to increase novel food consumption
first decrease consumption barriers (decrease disincentives) in order to provide consumption incentives and encourage people to change eating habits
remove reasons why people would say "no" to food and giving them reasons to say "yes"
Margaret Mead and Lewin:
How to decrease consumption barriers
Reconstructing Social Norms
perception, must be socially acceptable
example set by parents and friends (strongest norm)
people more likely to eat something if friends and family have eaten it and childhood experiences with food
Changing perceptions of taste
food is inacceptable if it is not in line with "SAFE"
familiar preparations/appearance influence acceptability/taste
must look familiar, i.e. packages, shapes
novel food introduced together with existing/familiar food, i.e. introducing it as side-dish
Assimilating unfamiliar foods
increase gatekeepers willingness to use novel food
gradual introduction leads to greater food acceptance
help increase food acceptance
important role of variety
Increase incentives to consume food
better educate gate-keepers about consequence-related knowledge
discussion-decision method is much more efficient than listening to lectures teaching about cons.-rel.-knowledge
5 x more likely to consider and adopt food
higher chance of lasting results because involves active behavior
higher consumption if people are publicly and socially reinforced for their behavior
In the end, Anna chooses the "Grilled chicken marinaded in
teriyaki sauce on rice" over the "fried vegetables" or "tofu". The waitress mentioned afterwards that most people choose this main dish.
What could be the possible explanation for this choice?
Shake Nigiri: Raw salmon slices on rice
Miso soup: Soy bean paste with dashi
Grilled chicken marinaded in teriyaki sauce on rice
it is not about how much we know but about WHAT we know --> Hierarchy of knowledge pyramid
E: exactly as expected
reducing barriers--> increasing incentives
One day her friend, Laura, who studies HFIM, invites her to a Japanese restaurant.
Anna has never been to a Japanese restaurant before and she sees many unfamiliar dishes on the menu. "Shake Nigiri: Raw salmon slices on rice" or "Miso soup: Soy bean paste with dashi." Laura explains that "dashi" is made of fish and encourages Anna to try the raw fish but she declines with thanks.
Why did Anna react like this?
After the waitress has brought the food, Anna's friend Laura tells her how healthy Miso soup is. "It's rich in antioxidants, vitamin B, lowers LDL cholesterol, promotes probiotic growth, thereby improves the immune system and is good for your heart"...
Emotions, memories and behavior
2 main parts:
1. Hippocampus (spatial memory and learning)
2. Amygdala (autobiographical memory, attention, emotional processing
used for automatic actions
peak mental performance at intermediate levels of 2 important neurotransmitters (noradrenaline and dopamine)
Cognitive control, internal goals, thought and action
4 main parts:
1. Dorsolateral PFC (attention, thought and action)
2. Right inferior PFC (inhibiting inappropriate motor responses)
3. Ventromedial PFC (generate emotional responses)
4. Dorsomedial PFC (error monitoring
used for conscious thought
very limited region: as you use your brain, blood glucose and performance decrease
Non-stress conditions: Prefrontal regulation
Stress conditions: Amygdala regulation
Higher literacy was significantly correlated with a lower BMI, adjusted for age and gender.
Chronic stress effects:
Extensive alterations in hippocampus and PFC (loss of dendritic material)
Provide a negative feedback on stress response
Expansion in amygdala
Promotes stress response
Anna thinks that the food industry and the government also play an important role in the promotion of changing people's behaviour towards making more healthier decisions. What part does the government and the food industry play?
Now that Anna has a more open view about food, she is really interested in food consumption and the behavior of people associated with it. A great part of her friends and family eat unhealthy and she thinks they should eat more healthy. But how can this be promoted?
1) Provide information
2) Impart skills increase "self-regulatory capacity"
Recommendation for the government
The 5 step process:
a. Personal factors (habit, emotions, knowledge)
b. Social factors (peer pressure, with/against social norms)
c. Local/wider environmental factors (accessibility, price, services)
Show how all interventions (legislation, taxation, price, communications) can work together and deliver change
a. What factors will marketing/interventions need to target?
b. Where will communications play a role? What factors do they affect and how? Will they play a leading role?
"Men, as well as women are much oftener led by their hearts than by their understandings." (Lord Chesterfield, 1748)
Behaviour change- government
gradual change consumption (example: soy)
taxes/subsidies for certain products
Now that Anna knows that it's good for her heart, she is more eager to try it. Anna tries the unfamiliar Sushi and Miso soup and it tasted much better than expected. From now on, Anna wants to get to know more about healthy food.
Arnsten. Stress signaling pathways that impair prefrontal cortex structure and function. (2009)
Baker (2007). Health literacy and mortality among elderly persons.
Baumeister, Bratslavsky, Muraven, and Tice (1998). Ego Depletion: Is the Active Self a Limited Resource?
Government Communication Network (COI): Communications and behaviour change
Marteau, Hollands and Fletcher (2012). Changing Human Behavior to Prevent Disease: The Importance of Targeting Automatic Processes, Science, Vol. 21, p.1492- 1495
Miller and Cohen. (2001). An integrative theory of prefrontal cortex function.
Morgane, Galler, and Mokler (2005). A review of systems and networks of the limbic forebrain/limbic midbrain.
Osman. An Evaluation of dual-process theories of reasoning. (2004)
Roosen (2011). Making the ‘right’ choice based on experiments: regulatory decisions for food and health
Sharif (2010). Relationship between child health literacy and body mass index in overweight children
Shiv and Fedorikhin (1999). Heart and Mind in Conflict: The Interplay of Affect and Cognition in Consumer Decision Making, Journal of Consumer Research, Vol.26, p.278–292.
Wansink (2007), Chapter 1 (Nutrition Knowledge that Matters) and 2 (Classified World War II Food Secrets).
In a lake, there is a patch of lilypads. Everyday, the patch doubles in size. If it takes 48 days for the patch to cover the entire lake, how long would it take for the patch to cover half of the lake?