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Genes and DNA
Transcript of Genes and DNA
F1 = The offspring of the P1 crossing
F2 = The offspring of the F1 generation crossed together Looking at the F2 generation suddenly some of the short plants were back! Mendel figured out that each gene had two parts called alleles. When sex cells are formed the alleles seperate, each sex cell gets one of the two alleles. If two alleles that code for the same trait are present then that trait is expressed. However if two alleles that code for different traits are present then the allele that is expressed is called dominant and the allele that is hidden is called recessive. Alleles are usually represented by the first letter of the dominant trait. If the allele is dominant it is capitalized. If it is recessive it is lower case. Example - Tall is dominant over short in pea plants
So a pea plant with two tall alleles would be represented as TT
A pure short pea plant would be tt What would a cross between a Tall (TT) and a short (tt) end up growing? A tall plant with one T allele and one t allele How a trait appears is called the phenotype.
Example - the phenotype of the hair on the mouse = white A genotype is the paired symbols that represent the two alleles present for a trait's gene. If white hair is recessive in mice, and a mouse receives an allele for white hair from both its mother and father, then its genotype would be bb. If black fur is the dominant trait for hair in mice then a mouse that receives a black allele from both of its parents would have the genotype BB. What would the phenotype and genotype be of offspring between a BB black mouse and a bb white mouse? Phenotype = Black
Genotype = Bb one from the father one from the mother black is dominant over white If the paired alleles in the genotype are the same (either both dominant or both recessive) then they are homozygous.
If there is one dominant and one recessive allele in the genotype then they are heterozygous. Examples:
HH, gg, QQ, ff are all homozygous
Tt, Mm, Bb, Ee are all heterozygous Sexual Reproduction Asexual Reproduction