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Fission and Fusion

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on 1 May 2013

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Transcript of Fission and Fusion

What is Required for Fission? Must be at critical mass (the amount of material needed for a chain reaction to be self-sustaining) of the substance
High speed neutrons
Little energy
Doesn't occur in nature Fission In an atom, energy is stored inside the center called the nucleus.
When an atom splits apart, large amounts of energy are released. This is called fission. Nuclear Fission What Does Fission Produce? Energy is released in the form of kinetic energy (heat)- a reactor takes the heat produced, converts it into steam, and uses the steam to power a turbine which generates electrical power
In order for one watt of electrical power to be produced, 100,000,000,000 fissions per second must occur.
Fission produces highly radioactive particles.
The energy released in nuclear fission is greater than energy released in chemical reactions because of nuclear chain reactions.
Less energy than fusion
Products of fission must be reused to produce more fuel or stored because of the high level of radiation.
Gamma Rays (farthest right on the EM spectrum) History Behind Fission Fission was discovered in 1934 by Enrico Fermi. He exposed Uranium to radiation using neutrons.
In 1938, Otto Hahn and Fitz Strassmann bombarded a Uranium atom with neutrons. The atoms then split into the elements Barium and Krypton.
Fermi then built the first artificial nuclear reactor underneath the University of Chicago football stadium in 1942.
This served as the model for the reactors used in producing the atomic bomb. Atomic Bomb The bomb dropped on Hiroshima on August 6th, 1965 was a fission bomb.
The bomb was developed by the Manhattan Project.
An atomic bomb results from an uncontrolled chain reaction.
They first built the reactors before the bomb.
The gamma radiation released from the bomb affected over 100,000 people. It caused disease and cancer.
Of the 90,000 buildings in Hiroshima, 60,000 were destroyed by the bomb. Future of Fission In order for fission to be a usable energy source, a reactor has to be designed that will produce more fuel than it consumes. These are called breeders.
Breeders would be a limitless supply of fuel, but they are expensive to construct.
There aren't nuclear industries focused on fission because of the danger of it.
The isotope of plutonium that is used in the reactors is incredibly dangerous. There is a concern that terrorists will steal the plutonium and make their own bombs. Fusion When light atoms combine with other light atoms to form heavier atoms.
Within a fusion reactor, hydrogen atoms combine to form helium atoms, neutrons, and energy What is Required for Fusion? High temperatures (around 100 million Kelvin) - at temperatures this high, hydrogen is in the form of plasma and not gas.
High pressure
High energy is required to overcome the forces of repulsion so that two protons can combine.
Naturally occurs in stars, for example the sun. What is Produced by Fusion? A larger atom, in the case of a fusion reactor, Helium
A large amount of energy
Neutrons How Does Hydrogen Fusion Occur? History Nuclear Fusion Nuclear Fission and Fusion By: Mary Gray and Jordan Allums What's Next For Nuclear Fusion? Magnetic Confinement: both magnetic and electric fields heat and squeeze the hydrogen plasma. The Tokamak is the most efficient reactor and is ring shaped. In modern day Tokamak's, the fusion of the plasma is able to be maintained for several minutes.
Inertial Confinement: Laser or ion beams
heat and squeeze the hydrogen plasma.
In one Inertial Confinement device, 192
laser beams are focused on a single point,
the location of the hydrogen atoms. In 1920, F.W. Aston made the discovery that four hydrogen atoms are heavier than one helium atom.
American researchers created the first man made nuclear fusion reaction in the early 1950's with the hydrogen bomb.
The hydrogen bomb was dropped on Nagasaki on August 9, 1945
In contrast to fission, nuclear fusion was first used in the hydrogen bomb and then later researched.
At first, research on fusion was secret because it was considered a weapon. Eventually, countries began to work together to harness the power of fusion as an energy source.
Thus, many Tokamak's were designed. The Tokamak that holds the record for the generation of fusion energy is the JET (Joint European Torus). It produced 16 megawatts in 1 second. Sources "History." NODE: Of Nuclear Fusion. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Apr. 2013.
<http://www.energyresearch.nl/energieopties/kernfusie/achtergrond/historie/>. "Key Issues: Nuclear Weapons: The Basics: What Is Nuclear Fission?"
Nuclearfiles.org: Project of the Nuclear Age Peace Foundation. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Apr. 2013. <http://www.nuclearfiles.org/menu/key-issues/nuclear-weapons/basics/what-is-fission.htm>. "Progress in Fusion." ITER - the Way to New Energy. N.p., n.d. Web. 30
Apr.2013. <http://www.iter.org/sci/beyonditer>. "Key Issues: Nuclear Weapons: The Basics: What Is Nuclear Fusion?"
Nuclearfiles.org: Project of the Nuclear Age Peace Foundation. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Apr. 2013. <http://www.nuclearfiles.org/menu/key-issues/nuclear-weapons/basics/what-is-fusion.htm>. "Nuclear Fission and Fusion." IEA. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Apr. 2013.
<http://www.iea.org/topics/nuclearfissionandfusion/> "Nuclear Fission and Nuclear Fusion." Bodner Research Web. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Apr. 2013.
<http://chemed.chem.purdue.edu/genchem/topicreview/bp/ch23/fission.php>. "Nuclear Fission vs Nuclear Fusion." - Difference and Comparison. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Apr. 2013.
<http://www.diffen.com/difference/Nuclear_Fission_vs_Nuclear_Fusion>. "Fission and Fusion." University of Wisconsin: Nuclear Reactor Laboratory. N.p., n.d.
Web. 30 Apr. 2013. <http://reactor.engr.wisc.edu/tour/fission.htm>. "The Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki." Atomcentral.com: The Atomic Bomb Website. N.p., n.d. Web. 30
Apr. 2013. <http://www.atomcentral.com/hiroshima-nagasaki.aspx>. "Nuclear Fission Animation for Science." YouTube. YouTube, 21 Apr. 2009.
Web. 30 Apr. 2013.<www.youtube.com>. "Nuclear Fusion Animation." YouTube. YouTube, 06 July 2009. Web. 30 Apr. 2013.
<www.youtube.com>. . "How Nuclear Fusion Reactors Work." HowStuffWorks. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Apr. 2013.
<http://science.howstuffworks.com/fusion-reactor3.htm>. Fusion is better than Fission because: It is a continuous fuel supply, it is safe, it is clean, there isn't as much nuclear waste.
The goal of fusion research is to: Reach the required temperature, reach the plasma energy breakeven point. This is the point at which plasma in a fusion device releases as much energy as it needs to be produced.
If these goals are reached, fusion can be used to make electricity Sources
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