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Transcript of PSYCHOLINGUISTICS
After crying, cooing and babbling, we come to the culmination of a child´s early language development-the first word.
Crying and cooing affect, and are affected by, caretaker behavior.
Babbling is the first psycholinguistic stage where we have strong evidence that infants are influenced by all those many months of exposure to their mother tongue.
'...no language but a cry'
The child starts to coo to express satisfaction
Cooing emerges at about two months of age, and finishes with the Babbling stage (six months).
Idiomorphs. 'ka ka' = 'milk'
'mama' and 'dada', 'doggie', 'kittie', 'milk', 'cookie', 'sock'.
Piaget egocentric speech.
Transition from an iconic creature to a symbolic human being.
Six years old (14,000 words)
Acquisition: when I was a child I spoke as a child
Parents notices that their children seemed to use single words as sentences.
The birth of grammar
Charles Darwin (1877).
"Milk" a statement, a request or exclamation. (Holophrastic stage).
Intonational, gestural and contextual clues. (Single word sentences).
The use of language and speech as a window to the nature and structure of the human mind.
Speech mother tongue
What a cute smile!
What is his name?
Does he speak yet?
So runs my dreams, but what am I? An infant crying in the night; An infant crying for the light, And with no language but a cry. (Tennyson)
Crying helps the child learn how to produce linguistic sounds. Autonomic Response.
Time breathing patterns.
Crying becomes more symbolic.
Marginal babbling and Canonical babbling.
No segmental phonemes (mother tongue).
Suprasegmental sounds (musical pitch, rhythm and stress).
The Miracle Worker
Development of Transformational Generative Grammar
It has always been involved most centrally with the study of sentences.
Grammatical precocity (Children).
Acquiring two-word sentences.
American Sign Language (ASL)
Human language to a chimpanzee.
"Phrase structure rules"
"unconnected items, like a grocery list"
Evidence for innateness
Learning your mother tongue is a very different enterprise from learning to swim or learning to play the piano.
Innate areas of the brain genetically programmed
Language Acquisition Device Universal Grammar
A child´s linguistic surroundings determines its mother tongue.
Children are creative wordsmiths
Daughter: Somebody´s at the door
Mother: There´s nobody at the door.
Daughter: There´s yesbody at the door
mans, knifes, sheeps
Regular past-tense endings
goed, singed, eated
Yesterday, we wented to Gradma´s.
Stages of linguistic development
Some psycholinguistics suggests that there exists a critical period for first language learning which is biological determined.
(Use of WH word but no auxiliary verb employed)
What Daddy going?
Why you laughing?
Where Mommy go?
(Use of WH word and auxiliary verb after subject)
Where she will go?
Why doggy can´t see?
Why you don´t know?
(Use of WH word and auxiliary verb before subject)
Why don´t you know?
Stages of linguistic development
(Use of NO at the start of the sentence)
No the sun shining.
No Mary do it.
(Use of NO inside the sentence but no auxiliary or BE verb)
There no rabbits.
I no taste it.
(Use of NOT with appropriate abbreviation of auxiliary or BE)
Penny didn´t speak.
It´s not raining.