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Knowledge of the 1800s
Transcript of Knowledge of the 1800s
By: Maha Siddiqui
Henry Clay (1777-1852)
Henry Clay was a political leader and the secretary of state in America. Henry Clay was the leader of the "War Hawks." He drove the country into the War of 1812. For the next 40 years he worked for international peace and sought to restore friendly relations between warring factions in the nation. Henry Clay wrote The Compromise of 1850. The Compromise of 1850 admitted California as a free state causing other territory to become a slave state. In addition, Texas was reduced in size and slave trade was not permitted in Washington D.C.
Alexander Hamilton (1757-1804)
Alexander Hamilton was a founding father of the United States and one of the most influential people apart of the U.S. Constitution. Hamilton was the founder of the nation's financial system. As Secretary of the Treasury, Hamilton was the main author of the economic policies of the George Washington administration. Hamilton funded the states' debts by the Federal government, through the national bank, tariffs, and trade with Britain. He was a Federalist and the founder of the Federalist Party. As a Federalist, he wanted the constitution ratified. Alexander Hamilton preferred a strong central government and weaker state governments.
Abraham Lincoln (1809–1865)
President Lincoln argued about slavery for years. During Lincoln's presidency, the country was divided into northern and southern regions. The northern states remained the United States, but the southern states had seceded from the union. They were known as the Confederate States of America. He preserved the Union during the Civil War and started the process that led to the end of slavery in the United States. Through his efforts he created the Emancipation Proclamation. Once the war was over, he felt that it was crucial to reunite the Union and the Confederacy back into one United States. This wonderful president was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth at Ford's Theater.
Andrew Johnson (1808-1875)
Andrew Johnson was at first a vice president and then he later became the 17th President of the United States. Johnson became president after Abraham Lincoln's assassination. He was later impeached and joined senate.
Orion Perseus Howe (1848-1930)
Orion Perseus Howe was a drummer boy during the war. He was one of the youngest recipients of the Medal of Honor. He was just fourteen years old. He was nominated for his service in the war as a Union drummer boy. He was awarded the medal on April 23, 1896.
William H. Johnston (1850 – 1865)
William H. Johnston was a drummer boy in the 3rd Vermont Infantry. His service during the Peninsula Campaign was recognized. He was the only drummer in his division to bring his instrument back. This was considered a worthy feat. As a result, he received the Medal of Honor. He was the youngest person to receive the Medal of Honor at 13 years of age.
The technique of trying to save limbs with doses of TLC quickly fell out of favor during the Civil War. The number of injuries was too high, and war surgeons quickly discovered that the best way to get rid of deadly infections was to amputate. Amputation saved more lives than any other wartime medical procedures by instantly turning complex injuries into simple ones. Battlefield surgeons eventually took no more than six minutes to get each man on the table, apply a handkerchief soaked in chloroform, and make the deep cut.
Closing Chest Wounds (1853)
Howard experimented with a new life-saving procedure. A chest wound was a death sentence during the Civil War. Among soldiers shot in the chest during the Crimean War, only a few survived. The problem, as Howard came to realize, was the negative pressure in the thorax created by the opening in the chest cavity. The effect often caused the lungs to collapse, leading to suffocation. Doctor Howard found that if he closed the wound with metal sutures, linen bandages and a few drops of collodion, he could create an airtight seal. Survival rates quadrupled, and Howard’s innovation soon became standard treatment.
The January Uprising was an uprising in the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, which is Poland, Lithuania, Belarus, Latvia, parts of Ukraine, and western Russia today. It was against the Russian Empire. It began on January 22, 1863 and lasted until the last insurgents were captured in 1864. The uprising began as a protest by Poles against conscription into the Imperial Russian Army. It was joined by Polish officers and various politicians. The Poles were outnumbered so they were forced to resort to guerrilla warfare tactics.
January Uprising (1863)
Latin Monetary Union ( 1865-1927)
The Latin Monetary Union (LMU) was an attempt to unify several European currencies into a single currency that could be used in all of the states. At the time, most national currencies were still made out of gold and silver. It was established in 1865 and disbanded in 1927. Many countries minted coins according to the LMU standards.
Shay's Rebellion (1786)
Shays' Rebellion was a series of protests in 1786 by farmers. The protests were against state and local enforcement of tax collections and judgments for debt. Shay had the support of many farmers. Farmers wanted to have the ability to elect and be a part of the legislature. Shay’s rebellion showed the weakness of the Articles of Confederation. It also showed the articles’ inability to deal with internal problems.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787 (1787)
The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 allowed for a government of the Northwest Territory and for the admission for states into the union. About three to five states were created from the new territory. Under this ordinance, each district was to be governed by a governor and judges appointed by Congress. Under the ordinance, slavery was forever outlawed from the lands of the Northwest Territory. Freedom of religion and other civil liberties were guaranteed. Also public education was provided.
The Anesthesia Inhaler (1846)
In 1863, Stonewall Jackson’s surgeon recommended the removal of his left arm. He used a chloroform-soaked cloth to knock him out before his surgery. It was placed over his nose. Soaking a handkerchief with chloroform wasted the liquid as it evaporated. Dr. Julian John Chisolm invented an inhaler. As the patient inhaled through tubes, the vapors mixed with air. This new method required only one-eighth of an ounce of chloroform, compared to the old two ounce dose. So while Union surgeons were able to knock out their patients 80,000 times during the war.
Hot Air Balloon (1861)
The Hot Air Balloon was invented in 1861 by Thaddeus Lowe. During the Civil War, soldiers made a flight on his hot air balloon and realized its potential. Professor Thaddeus Lowe persuaded the military that the use of these vehicles would be beneficial to the Union Army. President Lincoln was also impressed and created the U.S. Army Civilian Balloon Corps in June 1861. Both Union and Confederate forces used hot air balloons at the Battles of Bull Run, Chancellorsville, Gaines Mill, Seven Pines and Fredericksburg.
Thomas Nast (1840–1902)
Thomas Nast was born in Germany. Nast came to America and worked during the Civil War for Harper’s Weekly. He was loyal to Abraham Lincoln and the policies of the Republican Party. Thomas Nast specialized in creating illustrations that were patriotic political messages. In the decades following the Civil War, he became known for his editorial cartoons which attacked and helped bring down Boss Tweed.
Alfred Waud was born in Britain. Waud came to America in 1850. By the late 1850s, he was working steadily as an illustrator. In 1861, he was present at the Battle of Bull Run. Later in his career, he started to work for Harper’s Weekly. He drew scenes at Antietam. He was also present at the Battle of Gettysburg, and drew an eyewitness scene of Pickett’s Charge.
Alfred Waud (1828–1891)
This movie is about the U.S. president Abraham Lincoln trying to achieve passage of an amendment that will ban slavery from the United States forever. This movie displays Lincoln’s urge to obtain enough votes from Congress before peace arrives and it is too late. The president is torn in this movie, because an early peace would save thousands of lives. Lincoln faces his own crisis of the decision to end slavery or end the war. “Lincoln” was directed by Steven Spielberg.
In 1863, the Northern and Southern forces fight at Gettysburg in the Civil War. Ronald Maxwell directed this movie. The film focuses on the dramatic events of July 1863, when the armies of the Union and Confederacy clash at Gettysburg. The three-day conflict begins as Confederate General Robert E. Lee pushes his troops north into Pennsylvania. This led to confrontations with Union forces. As the battle starts, the film follows both the front lines and the strategic maneuvering behind the scenes.
The Emancipation Proclamation (1863)
The Emancipation Proclamation was an executive order that Abraham Lincoln signed on January 1, 1863. It proclaimed the freedom of the 3.1 million slaves in the Confederate States of America. This enraged the south. The Emancipation Proclamation caused a civil war. The civil war brought destruction to the South. The creation of this executive order was very important; if this was not passed then there would have never been a civil war and the slaves would have never been freed.