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Review of the Delian League
Transcript of Review of the Delian League
– transformation of the Delian League into the Athenian empire
– nature of Athenian imperialism; changing relations with allies
– key democratic developments: influence of the thetes, ostracism, citizenship law 2 Development of Athens and the Athenian Empire Transformation of the League into the Athenian Empire Origins Aims Organisation Actions Against Persia Actions Against Allies Actions Against Sparta Athens did not hesitate to place garrisons in rebellious cities. These garrisons not only served a military purpose but were a political device as well. Their job was to protect the Athenian inspectors or commissioners (episkopoi) sent out to install ‘puppet’ governments, or at least governments favourable to Athens. In most cases Athens set up a democratic form of government closely modelled on her own, only smaller. Democratic governments usually replaced oligarchic or Persian-inspired tyrannies. Although this imposition of an altered constitution favourable to Athens was imperialistic, generally the majority of people in the state favoured a democracy. GEM de Ste Croix has argued that in fact a state only revolted against Athens if there was a chance of an oligarchic faction gaining control there. According to the Athenian Tribute Lists, “I will not revolt from the people of Athens nor will I permit another to do so”. Athenian involvement in the judicial affairs of her allies may have begun quite early. A decree relating to Phaselis, probably passed after 462, clearly defines the judicial relationship between Athens and Phaselis. In the Erythrae Decree there is the beginning of interference by Athens in legal matters, but it concerned only political cases, such as persons accused of treason against Erythrae or Athens. Seven years later, with the issuing of the Chalcis Decree (446-445), much greater interference by Athens occurred and the actions of local courts were restricted severely. The subject status of Erythrae is clearly emphasised when the people are instructed to send envoys with offerings to the great Panathenaic Festival, held in Athens every four years. Between 450 and 446 Athens inaugurated a system of cleruchies, which were settlements of Athenian citizens abroad. These strengthened Athens’ hold on her empire, as they were located at strategic points in the Aegean.
•This policy was associated with Pericles and – although popular with Athenians – caused more bitterness and resentment than any other aspect of Athenian imperial policy.
•The best land was taken by the Athenian cleruchs, dispossessing a local population often three of four times as numerous as the newcomers. These local people often became quite destitute. •The Athenian settlers, drawn from the two lowest classes, were raised to hoplite status by the grant of land. According to Plutarch, not only did this system relieve “the city of a large number of idlers and agitators and raise the standards of the poorest classes”, but at the same time it implanted amongst the allies “a healthy fear of rebellion”.
•It is believed that Tolmides, the Athenian general, led some cleruchs to the Dardanelles area, and in 447 Pericles himself led 1000 cleruchs to re-establish Athenian control in the Chersonese. •This was vital to Athens’ corn trade from the Black Sea, which was being threatened again by warlike tribes. Plutarch says that these 1000 cleruchs “provided the cities there with fresh strength and vigour but Pericles also secured the neck of the Isthmus”.
•Plutarch records that after Euboea revolted against Athens in 447-446, Pericles “transplanted the whole population of Histiaea from their territory and replaced them with Athenian colonists”. These cleruchs were not colonists in the strict sense, as they were still Athenian citizens and could be called up for military service. Chalcis Decree
In 447-446, the island of Euboea revolted against Athens at the same time as Megara destroyed her Athenian garrison. The loss of Megara was disastrous, but Pericles subdued the whole island of Euboea and soon after issued a decree relating to the Euboean city of Chalcis. •This decree leaves no doubt that the original members of the League were now very much subjects of an imperial power. The citizens of Chalcis were required to swear an oath which included the following statements, according to the Athenian Tribute Lists:
1. “I will not revolt against the Athenian people”
2. “I will pay tribute to the Athenians”
3. “I will aid and succor the Athenian people”
4. “I will be obedient to the Athenian people”. Originally, Sparta attempted to lead naval expeditionary forces with this ambition, but reports of improprieties by the Spartan King Pausanias at the siege of Byzantium quickly exposed Spartan weakness of command. The Spartan Gerousia questioned whether to send Spartan troops so far from home. They feared a Helot revolt. Athens was a naval power. Pro-Spartan politicians have the ascendancy in Athens, e.g. Cimon The Delian League was established in 478BC Each Ally got one vote. Athens was Hegemon Allies swore never to leave the league Liberate the Greek world from Persian oppression Avenge the destruction of Greek sanctuaries by Xerxes Aristides equitably distributed the league contributions to all member states, earning the name Aristides the Just. Protect the Aegean from Persian aggression Garrisons: Democratic forms of govt.: Oaths of loyalty: Interference in the law: Religion: Establishment of cleruchies• 477 Capture of Byzantium and Sestos 476 Capture of Eion 474 Capture of Scyros 472 Carystus forced to join the league 469 Revolt of Naxos 468 Battle of Eurymedon River 465 Revolt of Thasos 461-445 First Peloponnesian War 459 Egyptian Campaign 451 Peace of Callias 447 Revolt of Euboea and Samos Athens Sparta Doves Hawks Headquarters at Delos Treasury at Delos Each ally was Autonomous Some contributed ships, others money Free and protect Greek states and Destroy Persian territory -Offensive and Defensive Athens permanent Leader Athens contributed largest number of ships and men Athenians were leaders of the army and navy
_Cimon Carystus forced to join the league Naxos becomes subject tribute state -the third type of member The actions of Athens could be justified in both cases Thasos- Athens uses Delian League forces in its own private dispute Persia had been decisively beaten at Eurymedon Athens had little right to prevent Thasos from seceding from the League Radical democrats come to power - causes a break with Sparta Athenians reliase fighting Persia and Sparta is too much and need to have tight control of Allies After 461 many allies had their contribution changed from ships to money payments Athenian ships made up the bulk of the League navy - in effect is an Athenian navy Other states became ill-equipped for war Athens used League funds to Develop her city. E.g. Thenlong walls Athens has Imperial ambitions League Treasury moved to Athens 454 and merged with Athenian treasury Peace with Persia means original aim of league gone. But Pericles demands allies keep paying tribute Cleinias Decree 447 - States will continue to pay contributions and it will be reassessed every 4 years Coinage decree 446 Forced allies to use Athenian weights and measures throughout areas under Athens' control All currencies were melted down and mints were closed Athenian Officials 700 various officals Episkopoi Phrourarchoi Archontes Proxeni Influence of the Thetes Largest group in Athens Didn't own land Rowers in the Athenian navy They helped turn the war at Salamis They were the driving (rowing) force behind the growing wealth and power of Athens Because of their importance they wanted more say in the decision making process New Athenian Governement Structure Boule Ekklesia Dikasteria Strategia Archons Areopagus Aristocratic Thetes Transfer of power Opening of Archonship to Zeugitae
and later to the Thetes Archons chosen by lot Reform of the Aeropagus Citizenship laws Ostracism Can't be a citizen unless both parents were citizens