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Chapter 2, Section 3

Kingdom on the Nile
by

Dan Priest

on 23 November 2015

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Transcript of Chapter 2, Section 3

The two regions were united about 3100 B.C. by Menes
The King of Upper Egypt

First capital: Memphis
The Nile was used as transportation between Memphis and Upper Egypt
The Nile was used as a trade route to Africa, the Middle East, and the Mediterranean
After 100 years of conquest the Egyptian power slowly declined.
Due mainly to the Assyrians and Persians invading the region

Much later, the final Egyptian dynasty ended when the Greeks took control, which was eventually replaced by the Romans.
Slow Decline
After Hatshepsut:

Thutmose III (step-son of Hatshepsut)
Military general who stretched Egypt’s borders to their greatest extent

Ramses II (200 years later)
Conquests in the north
Fought against Hittites, and eventually signed a peace treaty (the first of its kind)
New Rulers
The New Kingdom brought about Egyptian conquest.

During this new time period, the first female ruler took charge:
Hatshepsut
Started her reign by filling-in for her step-son (because he was too young)
She declared herself pharaoh ... and even wore a false beard
Encouraged trade with eastern lands
Conquest
1700 B.C. – Egypt was invaded by the Hyksos
The Hyksos took control of the Egyptians (though there was very little violence)
They brought a new skill that established their power:
Mastery over horse-drawn carriages
Egypt Invaded
Bureaucracy
: System of government which is split up into departments and levels of authority

The Pharaoh is the highest rank
Vizier
(chief master / supervisor)
Other departments:
Tax collection
Farming
Irrigation
Old Government, New Ideas
Divided into three distinct periods:
Old Kingdom
Middle Kingdom
New Kingdom

This was because power would change to different families:
This is known as a
dynasty
Egyptian History
The Egyptians relied on the floods for water and sediment such as silt.

They also had to cooperate in order to channel and store the water.
The Nile was Essential
The Nile river would flood periodically and send an abundance of water to the Egyptians:
This was because the snow on top of mountains in Ethiopia would melt

Egyptians would work together to control the floods every spring:
Built dams, reservoirs, irrigation ditches
Just like the Euphrates and Tigris...
The region of Egypt was only inhabitable because of the Nile river.

Without it the Egyptian lands would be barren desert.

Egypt was broken into two types of land:
Black Land
Red Land
Harsh Lands of the Nile River
He conquered Nubia in the south, turning their rival into a (forced) ally.
Acquired ivory, cattle and slaves
The Nubians became soldiers

Ramses II had at least 80 children with eight wives (not all at the same time).
Ramses II
New Kingdom
Large drainage project:
Provide new areas to farm by creating basin irrigation

The powers and privileges of regional aristocrats were removed.

Traders created better contact with other regions.
Some New Developments
The Nile did not rise regularly.

Corruptions in the government and rebellion were much more common.
Turbulence
The Old Kingdom collapsed:
Power struggles
Crop failures
Cost of building pyramids

Egypt was separated for over 100 years, until new pharaohs reunited Egypt and the Middle Kingdom era began.
Middle Kingdom
The pyramids were built as a
necropolis
(cemetery).

The tombs would be eternal homes for the pharaohs
Buried with treasure and tools
VERY long time to build (10 years at the earliest)
New pharaohs would begin building their tombs as soon as they took power
About 2.3 million stone blocks were needed to build one pyramid
Great Pyramids
United Egypt
Upper Egypt
Deeper into Africa along the Nile river

Lower Egypt
Near the deltas that split from the Nile and go into the Mediterranean
Two Different Locations
A sun-baked desert that stretches across North Africa.
Red Land
Kingdom on the Nile
Chapter 2
Egyptian kings –
Pharaohs
Organized a strong, centralized state
Believed to be gods – however, they were judged as humans and expected to behave morally
Old Kingdom
Because the surrounding land consisted only of desert, they were forced into settling near the Nile where land was more fertile.
Living in de-Nile
Land near the river where the soil was moderately rich and allowed farming.
Black Land
Section 3
LOWER
UPPER
After 100 years under their rule, the Hyksos and the Egyptians became one.

This new group created the New Kingdom of Egypt.
http://smdp.com/woman-king/142483
http://www.history.com/topics/ancient-history/ancient-egypt/videos/building-the-great-obelisks-at-luxor
Full transcript