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Chapter 2, Section 3
Transcript of Chapter 2, Section 3
The King of Upper Egypt
First capital: Memphis
The Nile was used as transportation between Memphis and Upper Egypt
The Nile was used as a trade route to Africa, the Middle East, and the Mediterranean
After 100 years of conquest the Egyptian power slowly declined.
Due mainly to the Assyrians and Persians invading the region
Much later, the final Egyptian dynasty ended when the Greeks took control, which was eventually replaced by the Romans.
Thutmose III (step-son of Hatshepsut)
Military general who stretched Egypt’s borders to their greatest extent
Ramses II (200 years later)
Conquests in the north
Fought against Hittites, and eventually signed a peace treaty (the first of its kind)
The New Kingdom brought about Egyptian conquest.
During this new time period, the first female ruler took charge:
Started her reign by filling-in for her step-son (because he was too young)
She declared herself pharaoh ... and even wore a false beard
Encouraged trade with eastern lands
1700 B.C. – Egypt was invaded by the Hyksos
The Hyksos took control of the Egyptians (though there was very little violence)
They brought a new skill that established their power:
Mastery over horse-drawn carriages
: System of government which is split up into departments and levels of authority
The Pharaoh is the highest rank
(chief master / supervisor)
Old Government, New Ideas
Divided into three distinct periods:
This was because power would change to different families:
This is known as a
The Egyptians relied on the floods for water and sediment such as silt.
They also had to cooperate in order to channel and store the water.
The Nile was Essential
The Nile river would flood periodically and send an abundance of water to the Egyptians:
This was because the snow on top of mountains in Ethiopia would melt
Egyptians would work together to control the floods every spring:
Built dams, reservoirs, irrigation ditches
Just like the Euphrates and Tigris...
The region of Egypt was only inhabitable because of the Nile river.
Without it the Egyptian lands would be barren desert.
Egypt was broken into two types of land:
Harsh Lands of the Nile River
He conquered Nubia in the south, turning their rival into a (forced) ally.
Acquired ivory, cattle and slaves
The Nubians became soldiers
Ramses II had at least 80 children with eight wives (not all at the same time).
Large drainage project:
Provide new areas to farm by creating basin irrigation
The powers and privileges of regional aristocrats were removed.
Traders created better contact with other regions.
Some New Developments
The Nile did not rise regularly.
Corruptions in the government and rebellion were much more common.
The Old Kingdom collapsed:
Cost of building pyramids
Egypt was separated for over 100 years, until new pharaohs reunited Egypt and the Middle Kingdom era began.
The pyramids were built as a
The tombs would be eternal homes for the pharaohs
Buried with treasure and tools
VERY long time to build (10 years at the earliest)
New pharaohs would begin building their tombs as soon as they took power
About 2.3 million stone blocks were needed to build one pyramid
Deeper into Africa along the Nile river
Near the deltas that split from the Nile and go into the Mediterranean
Two Different Locations
A sun-baked desert that stretches across North Africa.
Kingdom on the Nile
Egyptian kings –
Organized a strong, centralized state
Believed to be gods – however, they were judged as humans and expected to behave morally
Because the surrounding land consisted only of desert, they were forced into settling near the Nile where land was more fertile.
Living in de-Nile
Land near the river where the soil was moderately rich and allowed farming.
After 100 years under their rule, the Hyksos and the Egyptians became one.
This new group created the New Kingdom of Egypt.