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Youth criminality in Poland

Authors: Emilia Wolyniec, Krzysztof Sawicki
by

Emilia Wołyniec

on 22 September 2015

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Transcript of Youth criminality in Poland

Youth criminality
DELINQUENCY IN POLAND:
Act on Penal Law proceedings of juvenile shows three ways, how to work with youth…
Juvenile substance use
Types of truancy:
collegial,
criminal,
conflictual.
Many young people engage in sexual risk behaviour that can result in
unintended health outcomes.

Sexual risk behaviour place adolescents at risk for
HIV infection
, other sexually transmitted
diseases
, and
unintended pregnancy.

Sexual risk behaviour
Research
Sexual initiation at the age of 15.

27.3% of boys and 16.8% girls had the first sexual contact at the age of 15.

9.1% of boys and 8.3% of girls have sexual contact with a person at least five or more years older than they are
Prostitution / sponsorship of juvenile
Anybody, who wants to have sexual activity with minor under 15 years old will be liable to criminal penalties.

1.4% of minors (2.2% of boys and 0.6% girls) declared, that they
received the payment for their sexual services.

They sold their
sexual services at the age of 16-17.

20 % of minors (15 - 17 years old)
ordered prostitutes
for parties, birthdays, after passed exams.

Child contact with the pornography
77.5% of minors has been exposed to pornography (90 % boys and (65% girls).

45% of minors (69% boys and 10% girls) had a contact with pornography once a month.
RETREATIST: The street children in Poland
The phenomenon of "the street children" is very common in Poland. You could even say that it is a serious social problem. According to National Report of Vagrant Children in our country for more than 9-million-a group of children under age 18 are about 1.2 million the street children.
JUVENILE DELINQUENCY DEFINITION
WHAT IS DELINQUENCY?
The social construction of crime and deviance could therefore only be studied logically and accurately by examining the
everyday interactions
between rulemakers and rulebreakers producing criminalization,
namely the conflicts between elders and their offspring, authorities and their citizens, communities and their rebels
(Collin Sumner, 2004)



DELINQUENCY / DEVIANCE PORTRAYED AS:
-effect of supposedly "
objective
" and "
external" factors
. (Chicago School, 1930),
-
class-status differentials
, "sink" housing estates, low-income divorced parents, poor housing, material deprivation, and the improvement of systems of social administration (from 1940 to the mid-1960),
- ‘
malicious, negativistic and non-utilitarian’
. Albert Cohen (1955: 25),
- conforming to the ‘
sub-cultural’ norms
of the area (Downes 1966).
- ‘sparse friendship networks,
unsupervised teenage peer groups
, and
low organisational participation
’. Sampson and Grove (1989: 799),
- effect of
weak social capital
Putnam (2000: 307):



JUVENILE DELINQUENCY BASIC FACTORS
- Adolescent poverty
- Health problems
- Family problems
- Substandard living conditions
- Inadequate educational opportunity

SITUATION IN POLAND
MARGINALISATION AS THE CORE FOR JUVENILE DELINQUENCY

“INHERITATED” STATUS –(ABOUT 1-1,5 MILLIONS)

- single-parents and broken families living mostly in poor city districts
inheritated criminal status
- social welfare passive beneficiares with
learned helplessness
problem
- new generations
brought up in marginalized families
, often
in institutions
(living from day to day, neglecting their children, addicts, using violence, trouble with the law, homeless).

.




Increase the number of marginalized families
-
difficulties in adapting to changes
in social and economic system,
- rapid
growth
of social and material
differentiation
,
-
radical change
/ reduction of the
social welfare
function,
- people from marginalized communities
maintain their status quo,
-
fixation of patterns
(passivity, helplessness, demanding attitude).

Basic subcultural forms
According to Cloward and Ohlin it may by analised in three dimensions of subcultural expression:
-
retreatist
- encompasses those individuals who do not ‘flourish’ in either the criminal or violent subculture, and is characteristic of drug related offending,

-
criminal
- occurs in lower socio-economic status, but socially organised neighbourhoods, and
is typically directed towards property crime..

-
violent
- is typically directed towards violent or gang affiliated baheviour and is characterised by socially disorganized neighbourhoods.

TODAY WE HAVE MIXED SUBCLTURES, ESPECIALLY IN TWO TYPES: CRIMINAL / VIOLENT
RETREATIST



RETREATIST
WHERE DO WE LIVE ?
VIOLENT / CRIMINAL
Dresiarze / dressmen
VIOLENT/ CRIMINAL
Nazi skins / neonazists


WHERE DO WE COME FROM?
IN GENERAL:

Juvenile delinquency:

Participation in illegal behavior by a minor who falls under a statutory age limit.
NEW “UNDERCLASS” / MARGINALITY (ABOUT 1.5 MILLION)

- families, which in recent years have
lost employment
, especially in areas with
structural unemployment,

- children in these families grow up in an atmosphere of
crisis, frustration, deprivation of needs, helplessness, a sense of injustice
.
RURAL “UNDERCLASS” (about 1 million)

-
many rural families from small farms, especially from rural areas where the state-owned farms were liquidated, without access to schools, clubs, centers,

-lack of opportunities and degradation of social structure.
Failure of the education system for children from marginalized families:

- children have a very poor intellectual and cultural
heritage
,

-
differences
in preparing children for school are increasing,

- school rankings increase pressure and
eliminate the troublemakers,

- schools
getting rid of difficult students
(they are sent to special schools, daycare centers).
Failure of the social welfare and social prevention systems

- Children placed in residential care institutions due to
poverty in the family
.

-
Inadequate
professional training to labor market needs.

- High rate of
youth unemployment.

-
Too low wages
and
too high expectations
from employers rising adolescents frustration.

- Children from residential institutions very often
are placed in correctional centers
.

- Children from correctional centers are
imprisoned
, become
gang members
or living on the street as
outsiders
.

Collegial truancy
They undertake the risk behaviour and even criminal, such as stealing in supermarkets, drug trafficking, using drugs and drinking alcohol, participating in fights, prostitution
Criminal truancy
Conflictual truancy
This type of truancy is formed when a student has a bad relationship with the school and teachers.


Examples can be :
fear, feelings of helplessness, lack of interest in school subject, laziness, antipathy for the teacher, the lack of security in the school.
This type of truancy is characterized under peer group pressure. The student does not want colleagues to oppose, because it depends on the positive systems with a group, is afraid of group rejection, unpleasant nicknames on their part, ridicule and violence.
Demoralisation
in juvenile delinquency context:
truancy/school absence
school drop-out
bullying
drug/alcohol use
sexual behaviour
"sponsorship"
prostitution

RETREATIST / VIOLENT
Blokersi:
football fans (violent / criminal)
Leaving
the juvenile in the current environment educational (warning, minor commitment to specific practices and the establishment of the monitoring);
Directing
resources to the centers for minors or the host institution taking off from parents or guardians only part of the responsibility for the care and education (send to center of juvenile court superintendent or work with youth in special institutions or organizations, which are called upon to learn professional skills for youth.
placement of a juvenile in an institution or organization (foster family, the youth care / correctional center).
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