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A&P - Will Smith Project
Transcript of A&P - Will Smith Project
What is his diagnosis?
Doctors - Chelsea, Felicia, Laura, and Rachel.
The goal of this project is to test our knowledge we acquired as doctors and apply them to our patients. We are responsible for accurately diagnosing our patients and helping them in any way possible. We did research and conducted many tests to diagnose our patient, Will Smith.
The four diseases that our patient could have had included: sickle cell anemia, HIV, pregnancy, and diabetes. Sickle cell anemia is an inherited disease that affects red blood cells and turns them into a silver-crescent shape. The symptoms of sickle cell anemia include: shortness of breath, dizziness, headaches, and unusual paleness. HIV, a virus caused by sexual contact, child birth, breast feeding, or injection drug abuse, attacks the T-cells of the immune system. Fever, fatigue, swollen lymph nodes, and a rash occur immediately after infection. Pregnancy is when a female's egg gets activated by the nuclei of the sperm and egg, and a women has a child after nine months of supplying the baby with nutrients to grow. Diabetes is a metabolic disease in which the person has high blood sugar, either because insulin production is inadequate or because the body and cells do not respond properly to insulin, or both.
When Will Smith first went into the hospital, he had a strange rash, chills, and a fever. He also showed abnormal discharge from the penis, unexplained weight loss, fatigue/weakness, unexplained lumps, nausea, and dizziness.
Our original hypothesis was that he had HIV. We did a lot of investigation about HIV and compared Smith's symptoms the symptoms of other people that have HIV. Many of Smith's symptoms matched up with the common symptoms of HIV such as: fever, fatigue, rash, swollen lymph nodes, and weight loss. The symptoms seemed to be more than just a coincidence.
We concluded that Will Smith does indeed have HIV. His semen turned pink after conducting a test for HIV on him, which is a positive result. He also had too many symptoms pointing to HIV.
We, as a whole, have learned that diagnosing a patient isn't always straight-forward. Diagnosing a patient also takes time and is not an instant fix.
I found the labs and the medical records to be most interesting. The whole project was very realistic; I enjoyed filling out the records and finding out more information about what each patient had. -Laura
A question I have is what if a doctor misdiagnosed a patient, and they started treatment that made symptoms worse? Also, what does a doctor do? -Laura
It was interesting getting an insight into what doctors have to go through to diagnose someone, which is a lot. Is it difficult being a doctor? -Chelsea
I learned that it takes multiple tests to determine what could be wrong with a patient. -Felicia
From this project, I learned about four different conditions and the symptoms of it. Also, the risk factors of those conditions. -Rachel
In order to get a better understanding of Will Smith's medical condition, several labs were conducted.
Lab 6 - Hormone Test
One of the female patients was pregnant and one has diabetes. The purpose of this lab was to test for the hCG hormone and for the insulin levels in the patients.
This lab deals with the reproductive and digestive systems of the body.
For the first part, which was the pregnancy test, we took a 3 mL sample of our patient's urine and dipped the blue litmus paper into it. if it turned pink, then our patient would be pregnant. If it didn't change colors, then the patient was not pregnant. For patient #1 the litmus paper did not turn pink; however, for patient #2 it did, indicating she is pregnant. We then reviewed the glucose levels of our patients to determine if either of them have diabetes. After reviewing them, it was clear that Patient #1 has diabetes.
The results of this lab indicate patient #1 is a diabetic and patient #2 is pregnant. This indicated nothing for our patient, Will Smith.
Lab 5 - Lung Capacity
Lab 4 - HIV Test
Lab 1 - Urinalysis
Lab 2 - Digestive By-Products and BMI Analysis
Lab 3 - Blood Smears
The purpose of this lab was to find how much oxygen Will Smith's lungs could hold.
This is associated with the respiratory system of the body because lungs are part of this system.
In order to test Smith's lung capacity, he blew into a balloon. The circumference, radius, and diameter of the balloon were found. To measure the circumference, a roll-up roller was placed around the widest part of the balloon. In order to find the radius, the circumference was plugged into the equation r = C/2(3.14). After the radius was found, it was then used in the equation d = 2r to find the balloon's diameter. After comparing his results to graphs, these elements all came together to show that Smith's lung capacity is 2700cc.
The results can indicate whether or not a person has issues with his/her lungs. In Smith's case, he does have issues with his lungs. When comparing his lung capacity with the average capacity of people in his age range, height, and weight, it is much lower. Therefore, his lungs are not working properly.
Will Smith's health condition, HIV, could have been caused by many factors, including: having sexual contact with another person that has HIV, being born with the virus if his mother has it, by using needles that have not been disinfected, or having a blood/organ transplant before sanitary medical practices started taking place.
Right after being infected with HIV, the most common symptoms include: fever, fatigue, swollen lymph nodes, rash, muscle soreness, sore throat, diarrhea, night sweats, and shortness of breath.
Soaking night sweats, blurred vision, fever, weight loss, shortness of breath, chronic diarrhea, white spots on tongue, and headaches can occur 3-6 months after being infected with HIV.
Within 10-12 years after the infection, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) develops and the immune system weakens. People with AIDS are prone to get types of pneumonia or cancer.
There is currently no cure for HIV/AIDS.
Certain medications can be used to help control HIV. They help the immune system fight off infections, recover more quickly, and even help prevent cancer. Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) disable the protein needed by HIV to copy itself. Protease inhibitors (Pls) prevent the protease protein, another vital protein that HIV needs, from copying itself. Entry or fusion inhibitors block HIV's entry into CD4 cells.
Using these medications properly will help extend Smith's life expectancy, and he can live for many more decades. Though the medications can help him fight the infection, he is still very contagious and should take caution. After awhile, Smith's HIV can become resistant to the antibiotics, and he could develop AIDS.
The purpose of this lab was to test Smith for a pathogen or genetic disorder.
This test is associated with RBCs and WBCs, their shape, and the red blood cell count.
The red blood cells of the patients were observed, and their numbers were recorded.
For the patients, if the red blood cell count was low, it could indicate sickle cell anemia. Will's red blood cell count was normal at 5.1 million. If the patients had a low white blood cell count, it could indicate HIV. Will Smith had a low red blood cell count, indicating that he could have HIV.
The purpose of this lab was to give Will a demonstration and talk about practicing safe sex. Following this he was tested for HIV specifically.
HIV is associated with the immune system. HIV affects helper T cells, which stops the immune system from responding properly to diseases. This leaves a person susceptible to infections.
This test was done by collection semen samples from Will Smith. With this sample we added a drop of phenolphthalein ("HIV indicator"). Based on the color, the body fluid changed, this told us whether Smith tested positive or negative for HIV.
Results would indicate whether a person has HIV or not. With the information gathered from the test Will tested positive for HIV. His body fluids turned pink which was a positive indicator.
The purpose of this lab was to find out whether or not Smith had certain medical conditions, including: kidney damage, diabetes, dehydration, or fever.
This lab deals with the excretory system of the body.
In the lab, a sample (6mL) of Smith's urine was added to a test tube. Then, 150mL of water was added to a 250mL beaker and was preheated on a hot plate. In order to test for sugar content, 6mL of Benedict's solution was added to the test tube of Smith's urine sample. The sample with Benedict's solution was added to the beaker and put in a hot water bath. After letting the sample set for 5 minutes, the Benedict's solution was added; if it made the urine turn orange, sugar is present in the urine. In order to test for protein content, 2mL of biuret reagent was added to Smith's urine. If the sample turned a violet purple color, protein was present in the urine. Also, the color and odor of his urine and whether it was cloudy or clear were noted.
Smith's urine turned a slightly orange color after adding the Benedict's solution, so it was found that sugar was present in his urine. His urine also turned a purple color after adding the biuret reagent to his urine, so protein was present in his urine. This shows that Smith could be dehydrated or have a fever and that bacteria is present in his urine. His urine was cloudy, so he could have a urinary tract infection, or blood cells and puss were in it. He could have protein ura, which results from kidney damage since he had protein in his urine.
The purpose of this lab was to describe the color and texture of Smith's digestive by-products. Also it was used to show whether sugar or protein is present in his digestive by-product. We checked whether Smith was underweight or overweight too by finding his BMI.
The digestive system was the body system that this lab involved.
First, the physical characteristics (color and texture) of Smith's by-product were observed and recorded. Then, his by-product was tested for sugar by adding 6mL of Benedict's solution to the test tube with his by-product, then it was added to 150mL of water in a 250mL beaker on a hot plate. If it turned orange, then sugar is present in his by-product. Smith's by-product turned orange, so he does have sugar in it. After, his by-product was tested for protein. 2mL of biuret reagent was added to the a test tube of Smith's by-product. This time, it was not heated by the hot plate. If his by-product turned violet purple, protein is present in his by-product. His did turn purple, so he has protein in his by-product. Then, Smith's by-product was tested for starch content. 5 drops of Lugol's solution was added to it. If it turns purple/black, then he has starch in his/her by-products. In Smith's case, he did have starch in his by-product because it turned colors. Smth's BMI was also found in this lab. His weight was compared to a BMI chart to determine whether he was underweight, overweight, obese, or healthy for his height. It was determined that Smith is healthy with a BMI of 23 since his height is 5'2" and his weight is 181 pounds.
Results indicate that Will has a high amount of bacteria in his blood still.