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Immune System Assingment
Transcript of Immune System Assingment
to Protect YOU? Skin Sweat and Oil Glands Saliva Tears Mucous Membranes Stomach Acid Enzymes Skin is the body's largest organ and biggest barrier.
When Injuries occur, skin protects the internal organs by being the first thing to get hit. Tears are made of Water, Sodium Chloride, mucus, antibodies, and lysozymes.
Tears help to wash away any substance or object that causes the eye pain.
Tears are also a sign of having emotional pain as well as physical.
Saliva consists of water, mucus, electrolytes, and enzymes.
Saliva helps to break down foods in a persons mouth by making the substances moist and easier to swallow.
More saliva is released in a persons mouth at the sight, smell or thought of food as well.
During sleep people also have the salivary galnds functioning then as well so the mouth doesn't get dry.
Stomach acid is made up of Gastric Acid.
Gastric Acid contains mostly Hydrochloric acid, potassium chloride and sodium chloride.
This is a mixture of fluids that help to break down foods to go further through the digestive system.
Bile is added to this mixture. (Bile is made in the liver, stored and released by the Gallbladder into the stomach to help break down fats into more easily digested substance). By Hannah Blundon Sweat and oil glands are found in the dermis.
Sweat glands release a watery substance onto the top layer of skin to cool down the body when its hot.
Oil Glands, can be found in the skin on a persons head. The oil is there to keep the hair from getting to dry.
Also oil is secreted onto a persons arm, leg, face, etc. skin to help prevent bacteria from getting in. Location of Mucous Membranes Mucous Membranes are located in the lungs, ears nose, etc. (almost all open aired places).
They fight against infection and help to catch any germs trying to invade the body's open areas. Enzymes are mainly proteins that can be affected by temperatures. They catalyze chemical reactions.
When the reaction is over with the molecules called subtrates get turned into a different kind of molecule.
There are many different kinds of enzymes that are assigned to do different things in the body to certain subtrates.
Enzymes can break down fats and proteins just like the bile released into the stomach can.
Enzyme activity can be decreased when too much harmful things enter the body, such as drugs and alcohol. Macrophage Macrophage means "big eater". They are white blood cells with the role or engulfing and then digesting waste or dead cells they see lying around the body. Macrophage gives a signal to the lymphocytes to respond to pathogens which are illness or disease to get into the body and multiply. The lymphocytes are immune cells that help to fight off infection. Second Line of Defense Neutrophil Natural Killer Cell Mast Cell Interferon Neutrophils are a kind of immune fighting white blood cell that protects the body by releasing a bleach like chemical that kills the pathogens as well as itself. Most of the time the pain that a person will experience when they are sick is good cells killing the bad cells as well as some of the good cells. Thats the reason why a person will experience a sore throat because of the killing cells trying to kill away the bad cells, but at the same time the good cells as well. Natural Killer Cells have the priviledge as an immune cell to kill off any cell that provokes danger to the body, weather its a virus-infected cell or cancer. The way these cells kill is by poking holes into the infected cell membrane with their own special chemicals called perforin and granzyme. Mast Cells are the initiators of the body's inflamatory response. When a mast cell signals other cells, the blood vessels become dialated or enlarged to allow more blood to go to the area needing assistance. These cells are a huge help during alergic reactions because they help to make the area better instead of just getting worse. Mast Cell Mast Cell Mast Cell Mast Cell
Mast Cell Mast Cell Mast Cell Mast Cell Mast Cell Mast Cell Mast Cell Mast Cell Mast Cell Interferon's are proteins that are produced by virus- infected cells. Even thought the cells are produced by infected cells, their job is to protect other cells from becoming infected. Iterferon's a a wide range of viruses so they could be as normal as the common cold all the way through to the flu viruses. Now can you see the work your Immune System puts into protecting you? Helper T Cell Cytotoxic T Cell B Cell Plasma Cell Memory Cell Macrophage (In "Second Line of Defense", you can find explaination) Helper T Cells belong to a group of white blood cells called Lymphocytes. There is a big difference between T cells and normal blood cells. The white blood cell Helper T Cell has what they call T Cell Receptors. The "T" in T cell stands for Thymus. This cell helps to detect infection and signals the response of other cells like different B and T cells by using chemicals to call them. Cytotoxic T Cells also belong in the family of white blood cells. This is one of the different types of T cells. This cell can detect and kill infected body cells like tumor or somatic cells faster than other white blood cells. B Cells are another kind of lymphocyte. B Cells are a huge part of the humoral immune response and adaptive immune system. B Cells have a special job which is to build antibodies against antigens, and eventually form into Memory B Cells after activating antigen interaction. Plasma Cells are in the white blood cell family and their job is to mainly make antibodies. Plasma originally comes from bone marrow, but when they leave, they are now B cells. The Plasma Cells are transported through the blood. Memory Cells can be either B or T cells. The B cells produce anibodies and the T cells are an infection fighting cell. The job or Memory Cells are to produce more of either B or T cells if an invader the body has delt with in the past, gets back in the body.