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Civil Rights

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on 28 March 2018

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Transcript of Civil Rights

SNCC, SCLC, and CORE vow to continue the march
Arrested in Greenwood, Mississippi
After his release, Carmichael told the crowd that African Americans needed “black power.”
He meant - use their collective economic and political muscle to achieve their goals
White Americans felt threatened. They felt he meant black violence
Born Malcolm little, Omaha, Nebraska
Difficult childhood
Adopted X to represent his lost African name
Little was his slave name
Moved to Boston and New York City
Became involved in drugs and crime
Went to prison for burglary at age 21
Converts to the nation of Islam in prison
No drugs or alcohol
Demands separation (segregation ) of the races
After prison becomes a prominent minister
President Johnson established the Kerner Commission
Determined the causes of the violence
Long Term racial discrimination the #1 cause of violence
Recommended establishing and expanding federal programs to overcome the problems of America’s urban Ghettos
Highly controversial
A number of conservatives were opposed to expanding federal spending
Amounted to rewarding the rioters
Ignored other minorities
Johnson does nothing because of the Vietnam War
Riots caused a white backlash against further reform
Kerner Commission
Political impact
African American participation in politics skyrockets
1964 7% registered to vote
1986 70% registered to vote
Elected African American officials rose from less than 100 to more than 6,000, by the mid-1980s
Voting Rights Act, 1965
Ac banned literacy tests
Empowered the federal government to oversee voting registration and elections in states that had discriminated against minorities
1975 congress extended the coverage to Hispanic voters in the Southwest
Twenty-Fourth Amendment, 1964
Banned poll tax
Supreme Court
Baker v. Carr and Reynolds v. Simms
Limited racial gerrymandering or redrawing of election districts to dilute the African American vote
Established the legal practice of “one man, one vote”
1965, MLK and SCLC organize a campaign in Selma, Alabama to pressure the federal government to enact voting rights legislation
Protests climax in a series of confrontations on Edmund Pettus Bridge
The main route from Selma to Montgomery
March 7, 1965
Bloody Sunday
Heavily armed state troopers and other authorities attacked the marchers as they tried to cross the bridge
Television coverage of the violence outraged the nation
Voting Rights Reestablished
March on Selma
August 1964
MFDP delegation travels to the National Democratic Convention, NJ
Fannie Lou Hamer, MFDP leader gave powerful testimony about the difficulties of “registering” and “living as decent human beings”
Democrats refuse to seat the MFDP as the only Democratic party from Mississippi
Seat 2 members of MFDP as “at-large delegates”
Reform the nomination rules to guarantee greater minority representation in the future
MFDP rejects the compromise and left the convention
Ironically, the Democratic delegation left because the offer was made
Freedom Summer
SNCC Stages Freedom Summer
Freedom Summer, 1964
SNCC had spent years organizing voter education project in Mississippi
Met much violence and had very little success
1,000 black and white student volunteers flood Mississippi
Register African Americans to vote
Form the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Marty (MFDP) an alternative to the state’s all white democratic party
Voting Rights – Freedom Summer
New Successes and Challenges
September 15, 1963
3 weeks after the march Sixteenth Street Baptist Church, Birmingham is bombed
Four young African American girls were killed
November 22, 1963
JFK is assassinated in Dallas Texas
Lyndon B. Johnson assumes presidency
A southerner with an undistinguished record on racial issues
“No Eulogy could more eloquently honour President Kennedy’s memory than the earliest passage of the civil rights bill for which he fought so long” LBJ
Bill faced strong congressional opposition but Johnson worked for its passage
Bill passed the House of representatives
Group of southern senators block the vote with a filibuster
Lasts 80 days until supporters put together enough votes to overcome it
Bill passes senate and Johnson signs it into law, July 1964
Civil Rights Act of 1964
The Movement Marches on Washington
March on Washington, August 28, 1963
More than 200,000 people showed up
Day was peaceful and festive
Celebrities and entertainers were on hand to entertain the crowd
Martin Luther King makes his famous “I have A dream” speech
March on Washington
1963- Medgar Evers assassinated
1966 Meredith and nearly killed
Meredith graduated from Columbia University with a law degree
Meredith Integrates the University of Mississippi
James Meredith
Air Force veteran who attempted to enroll at the all white University of Mississippi
September 1962, NAACP and Medgar Evers won the court case to desegregate
Mississippi governor, Ross Barnett, was determined not to integrate “ole Miss”
September 30, 1962
Meredith arrives with federal marshals escorting him
Over the course of the night a full-scale riot erupted
160 people injured
2 men killed
The following morning Meredith registered and took his first class
James Meredith and Ole Miss
Prosegregationists firebombed one of the buses
The second bus was attacked
President Kennedy Takes Action
Newspapers and Televisions showed the violence of the “freedom ride”
Kennedy is forced to intervene again
He had helped win Martin Luther King’s release from jail the previous year
Kennedy tries to stem the violence
Police and state troopers agreed to protect the riders
Federal Transportation Commission issued an order mandating the desegregation of interstate transportation
Agrees not to intervene when Mississippi authorities arrested the activists for disturbing the peace
Freedom Riders met certain goals
Compelled the federal government to act
Demonstrated that intimidation and violence would not defeat the movement
Boynton v. Virginia (1960)
Supreme Court ruled that the segregation of interstate buses and in waiting rooms was illegal
Freedom Riders Face Angry Mobs
Spring 1961, CORE staged the “ freedom ride” protest
Riders set off in two separate buses from Washington, D.C., bound for New Orleans
They defied segregationist codes
African Americans sat in the front
Everyone used “White” restrooms
Freedom Riders
Montgomery Bus Boycott
President Eisenhower had not publicly encouraged rapid desegregation
Privately he expressed misgivings about the ruling
He recognizes the need to enforce the Court’s decision
“A foundation of our American way of life is our national respect for law.”
Federal troops were dispatched to Little Rock, where they remained for the entire year
Troops escorted students to and from school
Guarded students during the day
Eisenhower had shown that he would not tolerate open defiance of the law
Many southern states found ways to resist FULL compliance for many years
Ernest Green – Became the first African American to graduate from Central High School that year.
“The Southern Manifesto”
Southern schools had no intention of desegregating without a fight
100 southern members of Congress endorsed the manifesto
Pledged to oppose the Brown ruling with all “lawful means” on the ground that the Court had misinterpreted the constitution
KKK staged a revival
Prominent white southerners and businessmen organized the “white Citizens Councils”
Declaring that the south will not be integrated
Imposing economic and political pressure on those who favoured compliance with the Court’s Decision
Southern Resistance
WWII sets the stage for the modern civil rights movement
FDR banned discrimination in the defense industries in 1941
New efforts arose to bring an end to racial injustice in 1940
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) – Founded by James Farmer
Influenced by Henry David Thoreau and Mohandas Gandhi
Determined to apply direct nonviolent methods to gain civil rights
Organized protests in Chicago, Detroit, Denver, and other northern cities
Chapter 14 – The Civil Rights Movement (1945-1975)
Controversial Issues Remain
Attempts to increase economic opportunities for African Americans and integrate neighborhoods an schools were less successful
School integration
Forced bussing
Civil Rights Gains and Issues
Stopped his campaign speech to five the audience the sad news of MLK’s death
Asked people to replace their anger and desire for revenge “with an effort to understand with compassion and love
Despite his impassioned plea riots broke out in hundreds of cities
RFK assassinated two months later
Bobby Kennedy Assassinated
Black Panther Style
Young African Americans began to copy their style
Preferred to be called “black”
Changed their names to reflect African heritage
Founders Huey Newton and Bobby Seale
Formed in Oakland, California
Becomes an overnight symbol of young militant African Americans
Organized armed patrols of urban neighbourhoods to protect people from police abuse
Created antipoverty programs
Free breakfasts fro poor African American Children
Gain national attention when they march into Sacramento carrying shotguns, wearing leather jackets and berets
Protesting attempts to restrict their rights to bear arms
Black Panther militancy often led to violent confrontations with police
Each side said the other one started it
Black is Beautiful
Black Panthers
Many young African Americans begin to move away from the principle of nonviolence and question the goal of integration
If blacks must move into white neighbourhoods or send their children to white schools it reinforces the notion that white is better than black
Stokely Carmichael
Leader of SNCC
Coins the phrase, “Black Power” in 1966
James Meredith had set off on a “march Against Fear” campaign across the state of Mississippi to encourage African Americans to register and vote
Shot and left for dead after 20 miles
1964, broke away from the Nation of Islam
Formed his own organization
Returns from his pilgrimage to Mecca a changed man
Considers limited acceptance of whites
February 1965, three members of the Nation of Islam assassinate Malcolm X
Malcolm X
Racial Violence Plagues Cities
Within a week of the Voting Rights Act being signed race riots erupted.
Los Angeles
Predominantly African American neigbourhood of watts
Violence, looting and arson spread for several days before the National Guard restored order
Summer of 1967
Worst violence occurred in Newark, NJ and Detroit, MI
Detroit – 43 people died
$50 million in property damage
White Americans frightened by the violence being used against police and white business owners in black neighbourhoods
Frustration Explodes into Violence
March 15, 1965
President Johnson calls for a strong federal voting rights law, on television
Historically voting rights regulation had been left to the states
Declares it is wrong to deny fellow citizens the right to vote
The nation must overcome the crippling legacy of bigotry and injustice. “We shall overcome”
3 volunteers disappeared in the first few days of the project
Michael, Schwerner, James Chaney and Andrew Goodman
SNCC claimed they had been murdered
State authorities denied the claims
Johnson Orders a massive search
Discovered buried in an earthen dam
Shot at pointblank range
Banned segregation in public accommodations
Federal government has the authority to compel state and local school boards to desegregate
Justice department may prosecute individuals for violating people’s civil rights
Outlawed discriminatory employment based on account of race, colour, sex or national origin
Established the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EOC
Responsible fore enforcing the provision of the Civil Rights Act and investigating charges of job discrimination.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Emergence of Black Power
Increasing tension between the organizations that had planned the march
SNCC felt more militant protests needed
Dissatisfied with the pace of change
SNCC Becomes Militant
Bull Connor vs Children
Spring 1963
MLK and SCLC targeted Birmingham, Alabama for a major civil rights campaign
Birmingham held the reputation as the most segregated city in the South.
Campaign is a series of nonviolent protest marches and sit ins
Good Friday, April 12, 1963
MLK joins the demonstrations and is arrested
Famous letter from Birmingham Jail
MLK and Birmingham
Movement Gains Ground
A Conflict Erupts in Little Rock
Little Rock School Board’s gradual desegregation plan began with Central High School
Nine African American students volunteered to enroll
Governor Orval Faubus publicly announced his opposition to the integration
Called the state national Guard in to block their entrance
None of the students were granted entrance that day
Federal Gov’t vs State Gov’t – Little Rock 9
Brown Reaction
The Court Strikes Down Segregated Schools
Brown v. Board of Education, Topeka, Kansas
In the Sweatt and McLaurin cases the NAACP had challenged individual failing so of individual schools
This case would challenge the “Separate but equal” principle itself
The Supreme Court unanimously agrees with the NAACP
The principle is declared unconstitutional
Earl Warren – New Chief Justice
Writes the decision -
Hernandez v. Texas
Supreme Court ends the exclusion of Mexican Americans from trial juries
First Supreme Court ruling against discrimination targeting a group other than African Americans
Thurgood Marshall
Many others oppose the ideas
Nixon established the policy as a means of closing the economic gap between whites and blacks
Colleges, universities, businesses, and local and state governments put their own affirmative action plans into place
Whites argued that it was reverse discrimination
Violated the goal of creating a colourblind society
Thurgood Marshall disagreed “the position of the Negro today in America is the tragic but inevitable consequence of centuries of unequal treatment.”
until the nation addressed the legacy of this unequal treatment it would not fulfill its promise of providing equal rights and opportunities to all
Affirmative Action
Martin Luther King understood the anger and frustration of urban African Americans, but he disagreed with the call for “black power”.
Still supported nonviolent alternative to combat economic injustice
Martin Luther King’s “Poor People’s Campaign”
Goal was to pressure the nation to do more to address the needs of the poor
Traveled to Memphis, Tennessee in April of 1968
Offered assistance to striking sanitation workers
April 3 – King addresses his followers, referenced death threats
April 4 – killed by James Earl Ray
MLK Assassination
Kennedy Backs Civil Rights
Thousands of letters and phone calls begin flooding the White House, demanding the president take action
Protests are taking place in more and more cities daily
Kennedy became convinced he had to take a more active role in promoting civil rights
June 11, 1963
Kennedy makes a televised address to the nation regarding civil rights:
A moral issue
Nation needs to fulfill its promise of equal rights and opportunities
Sends a proposal to congress for sweeping civil rights legislation
Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy , led the charge
Kennedy Support
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.,
Gave a speech to the Montgomery Improvement Association (MIA)
African Americans were tired of segregation and oppression
Called for non violent protest
Urged them to avoid resentment and hatred of whites
Follow the Christian doctrine and love them
After the speech
MIA continued the boycott for more than a year
King’s house was bombed, no one was hurt
Supreme Court ruled segregated buses were unconstitutional
MLK and Non-Violence
Reaction to Brown
Brown was one of the most significant and controversial in American history
Public education touched most lives
Greater impact than cases regarding other schools
Court sends the message that all forms of segregation were wrong
Brown II
A separate ruling from the court called for the implementation of the decision “with all deliberate speed”
Ending Segregation
Brown v Board of Education
The NAACP Challenges Segregation
By the end of WWII the NAACP is the largest and most powerful civil rights organization in the nation
Membership includes a wide variety of blacks and whites
Many lawyers
Segregation Divides America
Jim Crow Laws Limit African Americans
In the south strict laws, Jim Crow Laws, enforced segregation
De jure segregation
Plessy v Ferguson
Ruled separate but equal facilities were constitutional
Seldom were the facilities equal
Early Demands for Equality
Racially motivated violence erupts in the south
President Truman appoints a committee on Civil Rights to investigate race relations
Committee recommends multiple measures to ensure equal opportunities for all Americans
Antilynching law
Federal protection of voting rights
Truman did not have the congressional support to pass these initiatives
Is able to desegregate the military
A lawyer from Maryland
Heads the legal team challenging segregation
NAACP wins a number of key cases regarding segregation
Sweatt v. Painter
Supreme Court ruled that Texas had violated the Fourteenth Amendment by establish a separate , but unequal, all black school
Supreme Court ruled that the state of Oklahoma had violated George McLaurin's constitutional rights
Even though he had been admitted to graduate school of the University of Oklahoma, he was denied equal access to the library, dining hall, and classrooms
According to the Supreme Court, a truly equal education involved more than simply admitting African Americans to previously all white universities
Student Activists Make a Difference
Sit-ins Challenge Segregation
Greensboro sit-in
February 1, 1960
Four African American college students ordered doughnuts and coffee at a Woolworth’s lunch counter in Greensboro, NC
Waitress refused to serve them
Four remained sitting at the counter until closing time
Ministers Form the SCLC
Boycott was a tremendous victory revealing the power African Americans had if they joined together
Elevated King and his philosophy on non violent protest
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
Established by MLK and Ralph Abernathy
Made up largely of southern African American ministers
SCLC advocated nonviolent resistance to fight injustice
Organized a series of protests
Prayer Pilgrimage in Washington, D.C., 1957
SNCC Promotes Nonviolent Protest
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
Organized and started by Ella Baker an active civil rights veteran
Its goal was to create a grass-roots movement that involved all classes of African Americans in the struggle to gain equality
Especially appealing to young college students
First Meeting, Easter weekend 1960
175 African American college students met at Shaw University, Raleigh, North Carolina
Listened to speeches and created SNCC
Sit- ins and marches to protest racial inequality become popular
Protesters came up with new creative protests
Wade-ins – beaches
Read-ins – public libraries
Letter writing campaigns
Picket signs
The March Towards Equality
The Civil Rights Movement Grows
Segregation Prevails Around the Nation
de facto segregation
In the north there were no written laws mandating segregation but it was still done by custom or tradition
Segregation’s daily impact
Forced into lower paying jobs
Higher rates of illiteracy and poverty
Lower rates of homeownership and life expectancy
African Americans in the north voted those in the south could not
Few African Americans in public office
De fact segregation exists in the southwest and west against Asian Americans and Mexican Americans (See later Chapters)
1947 – Jackie Robinson joined the Brooklyn Dodgers
First African American to play in major league baseball
Civil Rights act of 1957
Established the United States Civil Rights Commission
power to investigate violations of civil rights
U.S. Attorney General has the power to protect African American voting rights
The bill had no teeth to enforce these provisions
Significance – first civil rights bill passed by Congress since Reconstruction
Civil Rights leaders called on the community to refuse to ride bus for one day
As a protest to Parks’s arrest and to segregation
Boycott ends up lasting 381 days
NAACP begins preparing a legal challenge to the law requiring blacks to move to the back of the bus and/or give up their seats
Children and the News
After MLK is released school children join the marches
The police retaliated against the ever increasing protests with police dogs and fire hoses
The American public is shocked by the photographs of children and other nonviolent protesters being set upon by dogs and hosed
Black Power
Civil Rights are Advanced
Civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s succeeded in
eliminating legal, or de jure segregation
knocking down voting barriers
African American poverty rates fell and the median income rose rapidly
The number of African American high school graduated increased
Thurgood Marshall appointed to the Supreme Court, 1967
First African American Justice
Congress passed the Fair Housing Act
Banned discrimination in housing
Equality Today
The Civil Rights Movement
Loving vs Virginia
Full transcript