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Military and Cultural Achievements of Alexander the Great

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Jazzy Luvyou

on 16 October 2014

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Transcript of Military and Cultural Achievements of Alexander the Great

Military and Cultural Achievements of Alexander the Great
The Spread of an Empire
Ancient Culture of Alexander
Arichimedes of Syracuse both invented many practical devices and theorized the properties of static liquids.
Astronomers debated the geocentric and heliocentric theories of the universe and mapped the stars, while geographers worked to estimate the earth's circumference
Each of these achievements both confirmed the Greek ideal of independent reason and applied it in new ways
Hellenistic art reflected the age by preserving the Classical tradition while injecting into new subjects and techniques
Patronized by powerful elites, Hellenistic artists glorified political leaders with works that were often as dramatic as they were classically proportioned
Lasting from the death of Alexander the Great to the foundation of the Roman Empire, the Hellenistic Age saw the international diffusion of Greek civilization
So great was this diffusion that the traditional distinction between Greek and Barbarian dissolved
Ultimately, Rome solidified theis diffusion by institutionalizing Greek ideas, including Stoic universalism that became one of the foundations of Roman law
Further, Christianity turned the Age's philosophical emphasis on personal fulfillment into theology based on transcendant universal love
Hellenism
Euclia formaulated many ideas about geometry that we still use today
Archimedes designed a machine that used levers and pulleys to lift a fully loaded ship out of the water. We stillused machines like this today in order to pull ships out of water
In art they learned to convey emotionand movements into their works. When art has emotion or movements, its much more popular to viewers and buyers today
Women became a much common part of art and literature. Women being invovled in art and literature is still very popular today and is found commonly
Love or romances stories became popular. Today love or romance stories are one of the most popular genres that can be found
Alexander
Alexander the Great made a great effort to bring ideas and to bring ideas and people from different places together. Today, this is vert popular and in high school we have learn the ideas and customs from different places in the the world in order to graduate. Doing this bring us closer to different parts of the world
In 334 BC he led his army into Asia to take on the Persians
His army was small but his soldiers were well trained and fiercely loyal to him
Within a year Alexander's army had a major victory against the Persians in Asia Minor
Alexander led his troops south into Phoenicia and Egypt (2 territories ruled by Persia)
Next he marched to Iraq
which held a huge battle near the city of Gaugamela, the Macedonians destroyed the Persian army and caused the Persian emperor, Darius III, to flee
was later murdered by one of his own officers
Alexander became the master of the Persian Empire
He and his troops marched to Persepolis and burned it to the groundas a sign of victory
He led his army deeper into Asia, winning more victories against the peoplesof Central Asia
Alexander the Great wasking of Macedonia who conquered an empire that stretched fro the Balkans to modern-day Pakistan
Hellenistic

civilization grew from the conquests of Alexander the Great, whose

empire stretched from Greece to the Indus Valley
Soon after his death, the empire disintergrated in to smaller realms ruled by his contentious generals and their descendants.
However, the culture the empire established persisted for centuries
by forging political, economic, and social links between East and West, Alexander enabled a truly cosmopolitan society to develop
Although cities retained control of their own affairs, the city-states gave away two kingdoms based on the Near Eastern idea of divine monarchy. Macedonian and Greek elite ruled over these realms
theses elites encouraged a Greek-speaking intellectual class that, in turn, ensured the spread of Greek ideas
Alexandria, Egypt, became the cultural center of the Hellenistic world, where easternersand westerners met and exchanged ideas about science, art , philosophy, and religion
Greek science reached its height during this age, fueled by the data gathered through Alexander's conquest
Both Alexandria and Athens were prominent scientific centers, the later supporting the Lyceumfounded by Aristotle
Alexandrian physicians advanced medical knowledge by studying human anatomy and organ functions, and mathematicians such as Euclid synthesized previous achievements
Battle of Granicus
The battle between Macedonian king Alexander the Great and armies of the Persian Empire at the Granicus River in Asia Minor. When Alexnder started his war aganist the Persians in the spring of 334 BC, he was met at the Granicusby an army of Persian soldiers and Greek hoplites. The persian force stationed itself at the top of a steep bank on the opposite side of the river. The Persian plan was to concentrate their attack uponAlexander in the hope he might be killed, but Alexander led a successful charge acrosss the river and routed them. According to tradition, Alexander lost only 110 soldiers. After the Battle of Granicus, all the states of Asia Minor submitted to Alexander the Great.
Battle of Gaugamela
The armies Alexander the Great and the Persian monary Darius the 3rd, fought in 331 BC. The persian defeat opened the East to the Macedonians. Alexander, with 40,000 infantry and 7000 cavalry, invaded Persia from Egypt. The Persian army assembled about 250,000 men on the plain of Gaugamela, in what is now Iraq. Alexander attacked the Persian left flank and then broke through their center. Darius fled and the Persians retreated. The Persians lost tens of thousands of men in the battle, and the Macedonians lost fewer than 500.

When Alexander took over the Kingdom he faced revolts in Greece
reestablished his control using harsh measure to show the Greeks he does not tolerate rebellion
Thebes rebelled, Alexander totally crushed its army and burned the city to the ground showing he does tolerate rebellion
Citations
Papadopoulos, Tom, and Jim Kapsalis. "Credits." Credits. Web. 15 Oct. 2014. <http://www.kingofmacedon.net/credits.html>.
Ramirez, Susan Elizabeth, Peter Stearns, Sam Wineburg, and Steven A. Goldberg. "Chapter 5, Section 4." Holt World History: Human Legacy. Austin, Tex.: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 2008. 150-155. Print.
Ramirez, Susan Elizabeth, Peter Stearns, Sam Wineburg, and Steven A. Goldberg. "Chapter 5" Holt World History: Human Legacy. Austin, Tex.: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 2008. 127-155. Print.
"Ancient Greek Everyday Life." Ancient Greece. Web. 16 Oct. 2014 <.http://www.ancientgreece.com/s/Culture/>
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