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Stress Management - Chapter 6

PHED Lecture

Stress Management

on 4 January 2013

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Transcript of Stress Management - Chapter 6

Thinking & Choosing Chapter 6 Objectives - Experience and apply a variety of cognitive techniques to prevent unhealthy stress

- Distinguish between effective and ineffective ways of responding

- Respond to situations in the most effective way that will result in inner peace
- Explain how rational thinking differs from irrational thinking

- Identify specific types of thought patterns

-Evaluate how your thinking influences your emotions and stress Your thoughts shape the events and circumstances in your life

Cognitive techniques can transform stress-producing thought patterns into thought patterns that actually prevent stress Thinking and Choosing Cognitive Distortions Cognitive Distortions Occurs when thoughts are magnified out of proportion, resulting in excess stress
All-or-nothing thinking
Discounting the positive
Assuming the worst – pessimism, awfulizing Cognitive Distortions Cognitive therapy – intended to focus on cognitive distortions and relearning thought processes as a way of altering negative emotions, to raise self-esteem, and to gain hope for the future Source: Are You Normal?: Do You Behave Like Everyone Else? By Bernice Kanner (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1995). Believing What You Are Told Researchers found that, on average, there were 400 negative comments for every positive comment spoken to a child

Negative thinking may be a learned response that can be carried into adulthood FYI Thinking Errors Albert Ellis’ 12 irrational ideas
The beliefs or conditioned responses often take the form of absolute statements

Which irrational ideas relate the most to your way of thinking? Thinking Errors Make a conscious effort to change or reframe the way you think or focus on positive thoughts

Implementing cognitive techniques can help you get started Source: “Intensive Cognitive Therapy for PTSD: A Feasibility Study,” by A. Ehlers, D. M. Clark, A. Hackmann, N. Grey, S. Liness, J. Wild, J. Manley, L. Waddington, and F. McManus, Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 38(4) (2010): 383–398. A study tested the acceptability and efficacy of cognitive therapy for PTSD (CT-PTSD)

Intensive CT-PTSD was well tolerated, and 85.7% of patients no longer had PTSD at the end of treatment Cognitive Therapy for PTSD Research Highlight Cognitive Techniques Positive Self-Talk
Self-talk/stream of consciousness – the messages you send yourself

Becoming aware of your self-talk is the first step to mastering it

Consciously shift negative thoughts to positive Cognitive Techniques Positive Self-Talk

Positive self-talk can:
Improve self-esteem
Eliminate chronic, nagging stress
Increase happiness, peace of mind, confidence, and self-control Researchers compared Olympic silver and bronze medal winners based on how happy they appeared to be while standing on the podium

Bronze medal winners appeared happier Silver or Bronze Research Highlight Sources: “Are Smiles a Sign of Happiness? Gold Medal Winners at the Olympic Games,” by F. Dols, J. Ruiz-Belda, and M. Angeles, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69(6) (1995): 1113, 7. How you feel depends on what you say to yourself, especially when comparing yourself to others Silver or Bronze Research Highlight What is the most valuable use of your time right now? Time Tip Thought Stopping Thought-Stopping

Stopping negative thought when they enter your stream of consciousness

Recognize your choice to think say “Stop!” to unconstructive thoughts

Replace stress-producing, negative statement with a positive one Power Language A way of speaking that helps boost your feelings of control simply by changing the words you use

The words you use to describe your emotions will have a noticeable effect on how you feel Going With The Flow Accepting situations we cannot control

Bamboo Plant and Grass Reed Underlying Theories and Practices Conditioned Response

We tend to become attached to our beliefs and limit ourselves

These are called learned behaviors

The good news: we can unlearn them! Underlying Theories and Practices Conditioned Response

We tend to become attached to our beliefs and limit ourselves

These are called learned behaviors

The good news: we can unlearn them! We have to power to choose our response to what is happening in any situation

Requires deliberate intent

Victor Frankl’s Man’s Search for Meaning Choice People respond to uncontrollable events within two broad categories:

Effective responding – leads to feeling of relaxation

Ineffective responding – leads to feelings of stress Levels of Responding Seven subcategories of levels of responding:
Observation Levels of Responding Resistance/Complaining
Attachment/Rightness Levels of Responding
Stress-related behaviors are initiated by self-defeating perceptions that can be changed

Replace defeating, victimizing thoughts and feelings with more accurate, powerful thoughts Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) Principles:
You are responsible for your own emotions and actions
Your harmful emotions and dysfunctional behaviors are the product of your own irrational thinking Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT)
You can learn more realistic views and, with practice, make them a part of you

You will experience a deeper acceptance of yourself and greater satisfactions in life by developing a reality-based perspective Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) Two different types of problems:

Practical problems

Emotional problems Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) ABCDE Technique A method of coping with anxiety, which consists of examining irrational beliefs ABCDE Technique A = Activating event (identify the stressor)

B = Belief system (identify rational and irrational beliefs)

C = Consequences (mental, physical, behavioral)

D = Dispute irrational beliefs

E = Effect (change consequences) Recall a recent situation in which you felt an unpleasant emotion

How did you respond, according to the Levels of Responding? Choosing to Respond More Effectively LAB Take a moment to relive the situation
How could you have responded differently based on the effective ways of responding?

Go through each way of responding to that situation Choosing to Respond More Effectively LAB Key Points - There are 12 irrational ideas, called thinking errors, which create and add to stress

- Several cognitive techniques can be used to help prevent and reduce stress

- Conditioned response theory proposes that when things happen in our environment, we are conditioned to respond in certain ways

- Conscious choice gives us the capacity to choose a healthy response to stressful events

- The levels of responding concept explains the range of responses, both effective and ineffective

- Rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) is based on the premise that stress-related behaviors are initiated by self-defeating perceptions that can be changed

- A method of coping with anxiety that consists of examining irrational beliefs is called the ABCDE Technique Thinking Errors
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