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Italian and German Unifications

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Kyle Doughty

on 27 February 2010

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Transcript of Italian and German Unifications

German Unification Italian Unification Revolution of 1848-1849 failed. By 1850, the northern Italian state
of Piedmont seems like the best
hope of unitiy for the Italian
Peninsula. Piedmont was ruled by the house of Savoy
and shared a border with France. 1852 - King Victor Emmanuel II
names Count Camillo di Cavour
prime minister of Italy. Cavour enacts economic expansion policies
and increases the size of the army. Piedmont makes an alliance with
the French. 1859 - Austria is provoked into a war with Piedmont. As a result of the French-Piedmont
alliance's victory over Austria, the states
of Parma, Modena, and Tuscany overthrow
their existing governments and join Piedmont. French armies defeat the Austrians. France gets Savoy and Nice, as promised in the alliance with Piedmont, while Piedmont gets Lombardy from the Austrians. Meanwhile, Giuseppe Garibaldi (an Italian patriot) gathered 1,000 volunteers to form the Red Shirts. The Red Shirts take the island of Sicily and the Kingdom of Naples by September 1860. Garibaldi's forces marched up the
Italian Peninsula and handed over
the conquests to Piedmont. March 17, 1861 - A new kingdom of Italy is declared into existence, which is ruled by the house of Savoy. 1866 - Italy allies with Prussia during the Austro-Prussian War. 1870 - The Franco-Prussian War forced French troops in Rome to leave, which allowed the Italian army to annex Rome into Italy on September 20. Rome then became the new Italian capital. The Italians are defeated by the Austrians,
but Prussia won the war, so Italy gained Venetia. 1860's - King William I attempted
to enlarge and strengthen the army,
but the legislature refused, so he
appointed Count Otto von Bismarck
as the new prime minister. Prussia gained the territories of Schleswig
and Holstein. 1870 - Prussia and France disputed the candidacy of the throne of Spain for one of the Prussian King's relatives. January 18, 1871 - William I is proclaimed
the kaiser of the Second German Empire,
with the first being the Holy Roman Empire. The southern German states remained autonomous, but they allied with the Prussians, due to fear of the French. Then, on June 14, 1866, Bismarck goaded
Austria (Prussia's former ally) into a war,
which ended with Austria being decisively
defeated at Königgrätz on July 3. Bismarck ingnored the legislature
and made the changes to the army
anyway. Soon afterwords, the German states north of the Main River
form the North German
Confederation. Napoleon III and an entire French
army are captured by the Prussians
at Sedan on September 2, 1870. Bismarck manipulated the situation in his
favor, and then he goaded the French into
war on July 15, 1870. With Austrian help, Prussia defeated
Denmark in a war in 1864. Bismarck then enacted strong foreign
policies of conquest, which united the
Germanic states under Prussian rule. Before the war ended, the southern German
states wanted to become a part of the North
German Confederation. France was forced to pay an indemnity
of 5 billion francs ($1 billion) and had to
give up Alsace and Lorraine. These losses left them humiliated and seething, waiting for their chance at revenge. The southern German states honored
their alliance, and joined the Prussians
in the Franco-Prussian War. Paris capitulates on January 28, 1871.
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