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Transcript of Brain Rules
Separated into two parts:
Sensation & Perception - touch, pressure temperature, and pain
Integrating sensory input- primarily visual
pain and touch sensation
PAIN processing disorders
Based on the book by John Medina
We don't get it!
LET'S GET FAMILIAR
Associated with perception and recognition of auditory stimuli, memory, and speech
Damage to the Temporal Lobe
Problems with auditory sensation and perception
Difficulty attending to auditory and visual stimuli
Visual perception disorders
Problems organizing and categorizing verbal materials
Language comprehension problems
Impaired long-term memory
Changes in affective behavior and personality
Changes in sexual behavior
The brainstem is the region of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord.
It consists of the midbrain, medulla oblongata, and the pons.
Motor and sensory neurons travel through the brainstem allowing for the relay of signals between the brain and the spinal cord.
The brainstem coordinates motor control signals sent from the brain to the body.
The brainstem also controls life supporting autonomic functions of the peripheral nervous system.
The brainstem controls several important functions of the body:
Other Autonomic Functions
Relays Information Between the Peripheral Nerves and Spinal Cord to the Upper Parts of the Brain
Functions as neurotransmitter - the send of information from one nerve cell to another
Reward motivated behavior is highly associated with dopamine levels
EVERY type of reward studied has been proven to increase levels of dopamine in the brain
This includes but is not limited to exercise, sex, stimulant drugs, etc.
Stimulant drugs amplify the effects of dopamine
Several important diseases of the nervous system are associated with dysfunctions of the dopamine system.
Parkinson's disease, a degenerative condition causing tremor and motor impairment, is caused by loss of dopamine-secreting neurons in the midbrain area called the substantia nigra.
There is evidence that schizophrenia involves altered levels of dopamine activity, and the antipsychotic drugs that are frequently used to treat it have a primary effect of attenuating dopamine activity.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and restless legs syndrome (RLS) are also believed to be associated with decreased dopamine activity.
FRONTAL LOBE & DOPAMINE
The frontal lobe contains most of the dopamine-sensitive neurons in the cerebral cortex.
The dopamine system is associated with reward, attention, short-term memory tasks, planning, and motivation.
Dopamine tends to limit and select sensory information arriving from the thalamus to the fore-brain.
left side controls the
right side of your body
right side controls the
left side of your body
Visual processing center
Important for performing voluntary tasks
Controls motor skills, emotions, and balance
Older than the rest of the brain
"Cerebellum" means little brain.
It makes up only 10% of the brain.
It is about the size of a pear.
It helps with muscle tone and fine movement.
It is located at the base of the brain, just above the brain stem where the spinal cord meets the brain.
Damage can result in blindness or hallucinations
Damage to the right side can lead to drastic personality changes
Damage to the left affects verbal memory and the ability to recall strings of numbers. Ex. phone number
Retinal sensors convey stimuli through the optic tract that connects to occipital lobe
Parietal Lobe Cont.
The sense of sight develops gradually over 6 to 8 months. Although the eyes are physically capable of seeing, the brain isn't ready to process all the visual information.
Reasoning, planning, parts of speech, movement, emotions, and problem solving
The executive functions of the frontal lobes
the ability to recognize future consequences resulting from current actions
to choose between good and bad actions
override and suppress socially unacceptable responses
determine similarities and differences between things or events.
The average human brain weighs about three pounds. These three pounds have been called by many the most complex three pounds of matter in the universe.
The brain is unique in that it is the only organ in the body which remains largely unformed at birth. In fact, 75% of the brain develops outside the womb.
During the first month of life, the number of connections or synapses dramatically increases from 50 trillion to 1 quadrillion. If an infant’s body grew at a comparable rate, his weight would increase from 8.5 pounds at birth to 170 pounds at one month old.