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Copy of IB HISTORY

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Sarah Busby

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Transcript of Copy of IB HISTORY

IB HISTORY Wars and Conflicts 1. Limited War
2. Colonial War
3. Guerrilla War
4. Revolutionary War
5. Cival War
6. Total War Types of Wars Chapter 1 Limited War Defininition - A "Limited War" is a war, usually fought on a large scale, but not utilizing every available resource in order to win the war. Vietnam- A Limited War Vietnam, a proxy war contingent of the Cold War, is a perfect example of a limited war. While the United States did utilize many resources in an attempt to win, it did not expend every resource, and limited its' involvement due to several political, social, and economic reasons. Politically, the United States and the Soviet Union were seen as "superpowers", and each side had its' own loyal supporters. However, neither side really wanted to go to war with the other, due to the certainty of a nuclear war, and the possible escalation of warfare into another world war. not wanting to cause such disasters, the United States did not expend every resource to win the war in Vietnam. Vietnam and the American Theory of Limited War http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/2538434?uid=3739728&uid=2129&uid=2&uid=70&uid=4&uid=3739256&sid=21100816571301 Vietnam: A Counter-Argument While Vietnam is defined as a limited war, some argue that tactics used during the war make an argument for the classification of the Vietnam War to be more "Total" than "Limited." The use of Napalm, and the bombing of villages by the American's, and the use of horrific traps and land mines on the side of the VietCong are both suitable arguments for classifying Vietnam as a total war. But, the technology and resources available were not totally expended on the side of the American's. Limited War Under the Nuclear Umbrella and its Implications for
South Asia
Khurshid Khan∗
ince the creation of India and Pakistan, both countries have been involved in several conflicts
that continue to pose the risk of inadvertent war. These conflicts include the Kashmir dispute,
territorial disputes such as Siachen, a nuclear arms race, and water disputes. Unlike in the past, any future
war between the two countries, no matter how limited it might be, will have the potential to escalate into a
full-scale nuclear war in light of the changed strategic environment. Although the nuclear tests conducted
by India and Pakistan in May 1998 have radically changed the strategic landscape in South Asia, nuclear
weapons have yet to assure strategic stability in South Asia despite tall claims by various quarters. The
question of stability in South Asia cannot be isolated from global conventional and nuclear weapons
policies. The US, Chinese, Indian, Pakistani, and to some extent Russian equation constitute a nuclear
chain affecting not only the stability of South Asia but also that of other regions. Therefore, in the absence
of a positive US role and the lack of a constructive approach, based on ground realities by both India and
Pakistan, the likelihood of maintaining strategic stability in this region seems very bleak.
Soon after the 1998 nuclear tests by India and Pakistan, both countries formalized their respective
nuclear doctrines based on divergent approaches. Pakistan’s nuclear policy guidelines are security driven
and are specific to the perception of threats that emanate from India. Its nuclear capability is solely for the
purpose of deterrence of aggression and defence of sovereignty. In contrast, India has adopted as national
policy a nuclear doctrine that has offensive designs and retains the scope for conventional war fighting.
Knowing well that unlike the United States and the former Soviet Union, India and Pakistan have direct
and very high stakes due to geographical contiguity, the Indian leadership has contemplated fighting and
winning a limited conventional war against Pakistan. Such a limited war strategy is part of its doctrine for
achieving desired political objectives by exploiting the strategic space beneath the nuclear threshold. Limited War Under the Nuclear Umbrella and its Implications in South Asia Other Examples of Limited Wars 1. The Gulf War
2. The Falklands/Malvinas Conflict
3. The "War on Terror"
4. Arab-Israeli Conflict What Exactly is a "Limited War?" Korea: A Limited War according to Col. Jerry Morelock Weapons of "Limited War" Weapons of Limited War tend to include more traditional weapons, already produced and in use by the given countries army, that do not require additional production or training. Also, the weapons and tactics used do not typically cause any political uproar or moral dilemma. Why Most Conflicts today, are "Limited Wars" Because their have been no more "World Wars" in the modern era, and the alliance system has prevented the escalation of wars to the level of totality. Chapter 2 Guerrilla Warfare Definition: Guerrilla Warfare is a tactic of war, involving the use of stealth, and unconventional attacks, against a usually larger army. The "guerrilla" army generally has a deeper knowledge of the terrain, and is able to negotiate silently and stealthily compared to the other army. Guerrilla War Case Study Guerrilla Warfare often involves tactics unique to one army. A perfect example would be the Cu Chi Tunnels in Vietnam. These tunnels were used as a base of operations, in which the Vietcong would fight from. Each person living in nearby villages was required to dig three feet per day, which contributed to the huge mass of tunnels named "Cu Chi" Cu Chi Tunnels Fear Tactics Guerrilla Warfare often involves fear tactics, designed to scare or psychologically effect soldiers of the opposing army This picture is an example of a fear tactic. Taken in Fallujah, Iraq, during the "war on terror" of the Bush administration. It shows the bodies of several PMC soldiers, burned and hung from a bridge. The Difference of affected area, in total and limited wars, through the scope of WWII Guerrilla Warfare: An Encyclopedia Britannica Definition guerrilla warfare, also spelled guerilla warfare, type of warfare fought by irregulars in fast-moving, small-scale actions against orthodox military and police forces and, on occasion, against rival insurgent forces, either independently or in conjunction with a larger political-military strategy. The word guerrilla (the diminutive of Spanish guerra, “war”) stems from the duke of Wellington’s campaigns during the Peninsular War (1808–14), in which Spanish and Portuguese irregulars, or guerrilleros, helped drive the French from the Iberian Peninsula. Over the centuries the practitioners of guerrilla warfare have been called rebels, irregulars, insurgents, partisans, and mercenaries. The Beginning of Guerrilla Warfare: The Peninsular War Considered part of the Napoleonic Wars, teh Peninsular war was fought for Spanish Independance in the Iberian Peninsula. The Spanish fighters, called "guerrilleros," were the first true guerrilla fighters. They used guerrilla tactics to fight against Napoleon's forces. Guerrilla War in Popular Culture: Rambo When the movie "Rambo" was made, the idea of guerrilla warfare was being idolized. Rambo is the perfect guerrilla fighter, emotionally engaged in the battle, and capable of fighting off large groups of better equipped soldiers, without much outside help. Guerrilla Warfare: The American Revolution The American Revolution is an example of Guerrilla Warfare, because the traditional methods of warfare employed by the British, were skirted and exploited by the Americans, through Guerrilla Tactics and a thorough knowledge of the terrain that the war was fought on. The Art of Camouflage in Guerrilla Warfare Famous Leaders of Guerrilla Warfare Che Guevara Fidel Castro Both leaders were able to take power, and maintain leadership through guerrilla methods Chapter 3 Total War Definition Total War, is a war fought using every available resource, knowing that failure cannot be an option, and defeat may result in the end of a country, often using tactics that involve killing innocent civilians, and technology that can be extremely expensive, and even morally wrong, such as the atomic bomb. Total Wars: WWI and WWII Both world wars are great examples of total war, because each involved most of the world, and the consequences were humongous for each country. The end of World War 1 left Germany economically disabled, and World War 2 ended with Japan recieving the first atomic bomb, killing thousands of people. Case Study: WWII World War II was the best example of Total War in history. The stakes could not have been any higher, and the loss of life and expenses involved on every side demonstrated the necessity of victory for each army. World War II: The Atomic Bomb Total War Effects: Psychological The Bataan Death march was a psychological warfare method of fighting a total war. When thousands of prisoners of war, captured by the Japanese, were forced to march 81 miles, it psychologically effected the US soldiers. The POW's were often decapitated, buried alive, and ran over by trucks. The Result The response was an increase of propaganda in the United States, helping to increase production of war supplies The Cold War: Preventing a Total War The Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union was an example of what could have been a third total war. So far, in history, there have only been two true Total War. (WWI and WWII) After the second World War, America and Russia had become superpowers. The resulting power vacuum left these two powers to vie for international influence, causing a standoff of idealism, nationalism, and imperialism. The two powers, each possessing the capability to destroy the other using nuclear arms, sought to negotiate peace, in stead of a war that would most definitely become total in nature. The emergence of a third Total War would have most likely resulted in the destruction of both countries. World War II: Efforts on the Home Front Here is a picture of "Rosie The Riveter" Rosie was a symbol of the new emerging working class workers in America. During the war, America used every resource available, including bringing new, untrained workers into the workforce, to produce supplies for the soldiers over-seas. This is an important part of a Total War Total War: The Birth of New Technology In a Total War, the rush to give every available resource to the effort, often creates new military technologies that change the way war is fought from that moment on. In World War I, advancements in airplanes changed the way wars were fought. The new planes added a whole new dimension to typical warfare World War I also saw the dawn of a new type of naval vessel, the U-Boat, or Submarine. This revolutionized the way naval warfare was carried out. And of course, in World War II, the Atomic Bomb, and its devastating technology, changed the way wars would be fought forever. Many Historians believe that the Cold War was a result of the Atomic Bomb. Total War Case Study: WWI This is a list of involved countries, and why WWI was a total war for them. USA In order to protect its economic and political allies, the United States entered into WWI. The Germans had begun unrestricted submarine warfare in the Atlantic Ocean, severely harming the United States ability to trade with European nations, and, with the interception of 'The Zimmerman Telegram", the United States was forced to enter WWI, and commit an effort that could be defined as "total." GERMANY Germany, forced into the war by alliance, and surrounded by enemies in France, Great Britain, Russia, and the other Allied nations, had no choice but to fight a multi-faceted war. When the United States began trading military supplies with the Allied nations, the Germans were forced to engage U.S ships, in order to protect itself. The German war efforts were "All or Nothing", as failure would result in reparations that would cripple the country. FRANCE France, caught between the Germans, and the other Allied countries, was forced to fight a total war, in order to protect it's existence. A French failure would definitely result in the take-over of France by the German armies. WWI TIMELINE 1914 The Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand Japan And Turkey Enter War Russia Invades Germany 1915 Italy Joins War 1916 Portugal and Romania Join the Allies 1917 Greece And USA join War Russian Revolution Allies take "Air Superiority" 1918 USA Troops Arrive in Europe Surrender Of Turkey Surrender of Germany Genocide in Total War Turkish propaganda painted the Armenian citizens as saboteurs and a pro-Russian "5th column." Hundreds of Thousands of Armenians died of starvation as a result. This Genocide is a sign of Total War, because even the manipulation of a population is used to obtain victory. Economic Warfare in Total War World Wars I and II also demonstrated an important facet of Total War, Economic Warfare. This act of "economically suppressing a country" in order to harm its economy, morale, and ability to produce weapons, was displayed by every member of both alliances, in both wars. New Technology: Airplanes In WWI, both the Germans and the Allies created aircraft capable of causing huge amounts of damage on the ground, and in the skies. The forte of the German's had to be its Zeppelin, while the dominant British Air Force flew the AVRO 504. Below is a video, from the movie "Flyboys," a re-enactment of an airplane and Zeppelin dogfight. Chapter 4 Civil War Definition A war, fought between two sides of the same country, often because of a political, economic, or social factor. Examples: 1. The American Civil War
2. Chinese Civil War
The American Civil War The American Civil War, fought over the social issue of slavery, and economic issues between the North and South, resulted in the attempted secession of the South. A Counter-Example The American Civil War can also be called a "Revolutionary War", because the South intended to leave the union of the United States. The Mexican Cartel Wars: A Case Study While this may not be the first example that comes to mind in most historians, the Mexican Cartel can be considered a force fighting its own Civil War. They do not necessarily intend to secede, but because of social and economic factors, they are fighting against Mexican military forces. Here is a video featuring an example gang, and its story, based out of Tijuana, Mexico. Case Study: Chinese Civil War The Chinese Civil War, (1927-1950) was another example of a civil war. The third largest war fought in history, the Chinese Civil war between the Republic of China, and the People's Republic of China, is a perfect example of a Civil War. Two members of the same country, (China), fought over political, social, and economic differences. Civil War: Propaganda Often during a Civil War, each side attempts to sway public opinion toward itself, and away from the other side. This is demonstrated by Abraham Lincoln's speech, entitled "A House Divided." Civil War vs Revolutionary War Civil Revolutionary Common A "Civil War" is a war,
among one nation, divided amongst itself, over a political, economic, or social difference, with no emphasis intended on secession or revolution A "Revolutionary War" is fought with the purpose of one side, within a country, rebelling and leaving the union of the same country, because of a social, economic, or political difference. Both of these types of wars are fought over a political, social, or economic difference, in which one side of a country expresses a difference of opinion, worthy of a war. Case Study: The Spanish Civil War Here is a documentary I found, that thoroughly investigates the Spanish Civil War Return to Normalcy: The After-Effects of a Civil War Total War: No Regard for Loss of Life When America decided to join WWII, its first major involvement, outside the Pacific Theater, was the beaches of Normandy. This battle in itself, with all its bloody consequences, demonstrates the importance of victory, and the willingness to sacrifice human life. Warning: This video contains language and violence. Just saying. U.S Civil War The United States Civil war, in the grand scheme of history, ended well. Both sides manage to co-exist to this day. Spanish Civil War The Spanish Civil War, however, weakened the country as a whole, and caused untold amounts of damage to the country's economy The Causes of Civil War A Civil War is caused by one country, divided amongst itself, fighting over political, social and economic factors CHAPTER 5 Wars of Imperialism Definition: A war, fought for the purpose of "expanding an empire," or increasing a country's global influence or affluence Types of Imperialistic Wars Expansionism Wars of Influence Proxy Wars Expansionism: Expansionism is a subset of imperialism. The idea of Expansion is to expand the borders of one country, usually forcefully and at the expense of another country, in order to obtain political, economic, social, or psychological resources Effects of Expansionism Their are usually only three outcomes to a war for expansion, the invading country can win the war, lose the war, or retreat back and essentially "give up." Modern Expansionism Case Study: Although their have been no recent cases of modern expansionism, in the past, it has been a very common form of warfare. Definition: A proxy war is a war, fought for the purpose of achieving some greater goal related to the war. This greater goal is often related to imperialism, because imperialism is usually the cause of the Proxy War. A Proxy War Case Study: Vietnam Vietnam is a perfect example of a proxy war caused by imperialism. Because the United States and the Soviet Union were vying for political and economic global dominance, one of the most important facets of imperialism, both countries fought a proxy war in Vietnam. While Russia was not directly involved, they gave their political support to communist North Vietnam, which directly fought against South Vietnam, and the United States. The "Greater Goal" of the proxy war was for the United States to stop the spread of communism, while the USSR's greater goal was to protect its political and economic ally in communist North Vietnam. Effects of a Proxy War A proxy war can either greatly benefit, or harm a country. Because any issue worth going to war for, regardless of the scale of war, is going to greatly affect the country. Wars of Influence Definition: A "War of Influence," is a war fought for the purpose of expanding, or protecting a country's influence. The country may be fighting to maintain a strategic area, or resource. Examples 1. American Involvement in The Cuban War for Independance
2. Roosevelt's "Big Stick Policy"
3. To some extent, Vietnam and the Gulf War
4. The War on Terror The War on Terror: A Case Study In my opinion, the reason for the war in Iraq, or the "War on Terror," has ceased to be about the events of 9/11, and is now about maintaining a healthy relationship with Iraqi and Afghan Oil Sheiks. This "War on Terror" has become an example of a War of Influence, and more importantly, a war of Imperialism. Iraq is a battleground of cultural influence, and resources needed by the United States of America. The Effects of Imperialistic Wars The effects of Imperialistic Wars are very complex in nature. A given warring country can either expand its influence by winning the war, or harm its image, due to the political implications of war. This damaged image of a country often ruins any influence gained by winning the war. Germany in WWI: Case Study Germany engaged in WWI, arguably because of the alliances forged through Imperialism. After the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, Germany was brought into the war, and immediately found itself fighting a multi-faceted war, basically to protect its interests in Eastern Europe. After Germany's defeat, however, the economic sanctions place upon it ended Germany's "Empire" for the time being. CHAPTER 6 REVOLUTIONARY WAR Definition: A Revolutionary War, or "War of Decolonization," is a war between two sides of the same country, for the purpose of secession, due to a difference of political, economic, or social ideas. Effects of a Revolution A Revolution can end in several ways, but most often ends either in complete separation, partial suppression, or reunification. Examples of Revolutionary War The American Revolution




The French Revolution Case Study: The American Revolution The American Revolution was definitely a Revolutionary War, as well as a "War of Decolonization. The American colonies, tired of over-taxation and unfair treatment, as well as a lack of freedom in religious choice, decided to rebel from the British monarchy. Case Study: The French Revolution The French people, tired of being treated unfairly by a rich upper class, rebelled. The French Revolution is an example of a Revolutionary War, but not a "War of Decolonization." The French Revolution was focused mainly on the amendment of social factors, particularly the large difference between the poor "Third Estate" and the much richer "First and Second Estates." An Examination of the French Revolution, and its Idealism and Inner Workings, thru the popular theatrical peice "les Miserables." The Social Effects of A Revolution After a true revolution, the original government must be deposed. After this has occurred, the new government may either create a new governing body, or descend into anarchy. A Revolutionary Document: An exerpt from Thomas Paine's "Common Sense," a very influential propaganda peice during the American Revolution. CHAPTER 7 Conclusion Conclusion Each type of war is unique in nature, yet shares its own similarities that make the connections of each war both symmetrical and diverse. In order to clear up the similarities and help to further investigate each type of war, I created this portfolio. This portfolio correctly compares and contrasts the different types of war, and goes into detail about the causes and effects of each. Final Statistics 133 Artifacts
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