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Physics 11 Mind Map

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Alyshia Yee

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Transcript of Physics 11 Mind Map

Physics
By: Alyshia Yee
Physics
the branch of science around nature and properties of matter and energy
understanding the constant change of the nature of the universe
all 5 units explain the forces that control the Earth
Physics
11
5 units of physics, condensed into the simplicity of 5 notes
Kinematics
Dynamics
Waves and Optics
Modern
Physics

6 weeks, 25 days, and all of Physics 11; a challenge I naively and willingly chose to accept and have now overcome.
Kinematics
Dynamics
Wave Motion and Optics
Modern Physics
Energy
Key words
scalar quantity: magnitude (size)
vector quantity: direction and magnitude
delta: greek for, "change in"
displacement (d): the change in position of an object [m]
velocity (v): the rate of change in an object's displacement over time [m/s]
acceleration (a): rate of change in an object's velocity over time [m/s^2]
distance: how far an object travels in total [m]
speed: magnitude of velocity in a given time [m/s]
average speed: distance/time [m/s]

[--vector--]
[--scalar--]
One Dimension
uniform motion: velocity remains constant
uniformly accelerated motion: acceleration remains constant
Uniform Motion
displacement is directly proportional to time
when velocity is constant, acceleration=0
position vs. time graph -> slope=velocity
velocity vs. time graph -> slope=acceleration
area under the graph is the displacement
a = v / t
a = v2 - v1 / t
d = (v2 + v1 / 2) t
d = v1t + 1/2 a t^2
v2^2 = v1^2 + 2 a d
Instantaneous Velocity (Speed)
Formulas
when acceleration is constant
velocity undefined with one slope
tangent line needed to produce its slope
Freely Falling Objects
acceleration due to gravity (g)
g=9.81m/s^2 [down]
gravity can replace acceleration when acceleration is due to gravity
Projectile Motion
object is thrown into the air horizontally
2 dimensional (horizontal and vertical components
horizontal (y)
vertical (x)
horizontal: uniform (constant velocity)
vx = dx / t
vertical: uniform (constant acceleration)
ay = vy2 - vy1 / t
dy = (vy2 + vy1 / 2) t
dy = vy1 t + 1/2 ay t^2
vy2^1 = vy1^2 + 2 a d

Forces
force: external push/pull of object
vector
measured in newtons (N)
tension: pulling force exerted on an object by a rope/string/chain
points away from object
Fa: direct push of an object
Newton's First Law of Motion
object will remain at a constant velocity
requires force
no force -> acceleration=0
Mass
measure of an object's tendency to resist change in motion
increase of mass -> increase of resistance
measured in kilogram (kg)
scalar
Newton's Second Law of Motion
when force acts on object resulting in non-zero -> unbalanced Fnet
acceleration is directly proportional to Fnet
Newton's Third Law of Motion
when object exerts force on a second object and it exerts equal and opposite force on the first object
wheel exerts force upon road while the road exerts equal and opposite force on the wheel
force exerted by road upon the wheel propels the car down the road
direction of the wheel
direction of force applied by the wheel
tension (T)
applied force (Fa)
force of gravity (Fg)
normal force (FN)
frictional force (Ff)
elastic force (Fs)
Force Due to Gravity
Newton -> law of universal gravitation
gravitational force between 2 masses: directly proportional to the product of the masses
G=gravitational constant
6.67x10^-11 N*m^2/kg^2
vector
direction: always toward opposing mass
m1
m1
<- Fine wire
equated the angle of rotation using force
when the mass and displacement are known, G can be calculated
able to measure the value of G
law of universal gravitation & G lead to the calculation of the mass of Earth to be 5.98x10^24kg
Velocity
Time
Gravitational Field System
Fg = m * g
Fg = Gm1m2 / r^2
g = GmE / rE^2
E= Earth
gravitational field strength on the surface of Earth
further from Earth, magnitude of gravity decreases
direction: always toward centre of Earth
Formulas
Normal and Frictional Forces
normal force: supporting force exerted by lower surface upon upper surface
perpendicular to surface
Ff: dependent on:
magnitude of FN
nature of 2 surfaces
coefficient of friction
Greek mu
no unit of measure
Cavendish Experiment
us > uk
Ff = uFn
Momentum and Impulse
momentum (p): vector
unit: kg*m/s
product of m*v
impulse: change in object's momentum
unit: N*s
The Law of Conservation of Momentum
2 objects collide
exert opposite and equal forces
total momentum doesn't change
ptot = -ptot
3 types of linear interactions
Collisions where objects collide, but don't stick together
1
2
Before
2
1
After
Collisions where objects collide and stick together
2
1
Before
1+2
After
Explosions
Before
After
1+2
1
2
Waves
waves: a vibration that carries energy from one point to another without transmission of matter
mechanical
needs medium to travel through
remains in fixed position
electromagnetic
doesn't need medium
longitudinal wave
compression & rarefaction
compressions
rarefactions
[-------------------------]
[----------------]
[----------------]
[------]
[------]
rarefactions
rarefactions
compressions
transverse wave
vibration of medium is perpendicular to energy flow
crest: max displacement above equilibrium
trough: max displacement below equilibrium
equilibrium: original position of medium
crest
trough
equilibrium
Key Words
compressions: compressed parts of longitudinal waves
rarefactions: stretched areas of longitudinal waves
amplitude: max displacement up or down from equilibrium
frequency (f): number of waves passing a point in 1s
measured in Hertz (Hz)
period (T): time of 1 event
phase: relates 2 points in a wave
wavelength: distance between 2 nearest points that are in phase
depends on medium
higher the density, faster the wave
The speed of Waves
Formulas
v = rootB / p
M = hi / ho
M = -di / do
1 /f = 1 / do + 1 / di
sin(pheta)1 / sin(pheta)2 = v1 / v2 = lambda1 / lambda2 = n2 / n1
Reflection of Waves
angle of reflection = angle of incidence
angles are measured from the normal
incidence: incoming
normal: line perpendicular to the reflecting surface
Normal
incident
reflected
angle of incidence
angle of reflection
reflecting surface
Snell's Law
angle of incidence/angle of refraction = constant = n = Rx
index of refraction (n)
larger n of a medium, larger change in direction
Diffraction of Waves
diffraction: bending/spreading of waves when they meet an obstruction
only waves
Depends on:
size of opening
wavelength
Constructive Interference
2 crests/troughs meet
amplitudes combine
Destructive Interference
crest and trough meet
amplitudes combine
tend to cancel out
A
B
A+B
A
B
B
A
A+B
Doppler Shift
relation of the source of the wave and the receiver
frequency received differs from the source
x
source
y
x
source
y
when the source is moving away from the receiver -> frequency received < frequency of the source
when the source is moving toward the receiver -> frequency received > frequency of the source
Polarization
only transverse waves
direction of medium
direction of energy flow
medium vibrates perpendicular to the direction of the energy flow
when polarizing axes of 2 filters are parallel
light can pass through
when polarizing axes of 2 filters are perpendicular
no light can pass through
Plane Mirror Characteristics
erect (right side up)
same size as the object (same distance in front and behind the mirror)
virtual (when light appears to come from a certain location)
2 mirrors at 90 degrees to each other
3 images
reflection from each mirror (2)
double reflection (1)
*
C
principle axis
vertex
concave mirror
principle axis
*
C
convex mirror
vertex
centre of curvature (C)
focal point (f)
halfway between C and the mirror
principle axis: line through the centre of curvature and the mirror
concave mirror = converging mirror
convex mirror = diverging mirror
Ray Diagrams (concave & convex mirrors)
when the object is beyond C
image: inverted, smaller, real
[-----------------concave mirror-----------------]
*
C
*
O
I
when object is at C
image: inverted, same size, real
when object is between C and f
image: inverted, larger, real
when object is at f
image: no image
when object is beyond f
image: erect, larger, virtual
*
C
f
*
O
I
*
C
f
*
O
I
*
C
f
*
O
f
*
O
I
when object is anywhere
erect, smaller, virtual
[-convex-]
*
C
f
*
O
I
Refraction
wave changes its direction of movement
change in speed
Normal
angle of incidence
angle of refraction
frequency doesn't change
low - high index of refraction
light slows down -> bends towards normal
high - low index of refraction
light speeds up -> bends away from normal
critical angle
angle of incidence that produces an angle of refraction of 90 degrees
occurs in high - low index of refraction
Refraction of Light from Lenses
optical centre (O): centre of lens
focal length: length from the distance between the center of the lens and its focus
on both sides of the lens
concave lens = diverging lens
same as convex mirror
convex = converging lens
light comes together
same as concave mirror
Ray Diagrams (convex and concave lenses)
when object is beyond 2f
image: inverted, smaller, real
when object is at 2F
image: inverted, same size, real
when object is between 2f and f
image: inverted, larger, real
when object is at f
image: no image
when object is beyond f
image: erect, larger, virtual
when object is anywhere
erect, smaller, virtual
2f
*
*
*
O
I
*
*
2f
*
2f
2f
O
2f
2f
f
*
f
2f
*
2f
*
*
*
*
*
f
*
*
*
f
2f
2f
*
O
I
f
*
*
*
*
f
2f
2f
O
I
*
f
*
f
f
f
f
O
I
O
*
f
I
Energy
Work
refers to work done on an object
Energy
ability to do work
potential energy: stored energy due to its position
kinetic energy: the energy of an object due to its motion
Gravitational Potential Energy
when work is done against gravity
work is stored as gravitational potential energy
depends on:
the force acting on the object
displacement of the object
scalar, measured in (N*m) or J
can be positive/negative
Kinetic Energy
related to work
scalar, measured in Joules (J)
value:
+ if a gain in kinetic energy (speeds up)
- if a loss in kinetic energy (slows down)
Thermal Energy
when work is done to an object to overcome friction
the measurement of how much motion particles have
increases by:
changing mechanical energy -> thermal energy
transfer of heat from one object to another
Specific Heat Capacity
amount of heat a unit of mass can gain/lose to change its temperature by 1 degree
different substances have different heat capacities
water: 4184 J/(kg*degrees C)
copper: 390 J/(kg*degrees C)
gain/loss of heat depends on:
mass of substance
temperature change of the substance
specific heat capacity of substance
Law of Conservation of Energy
energy cannot be created/destroyed
can be changed
total energy = constant
Power
rate at which work is done
scalar, measured in (J/s) or Watts (W)
Efficiency
ratio of useless work output by a system to work input
efficiency = work out / work in x 100%
efficiency = power out / power in x 100%
work in > work out
power in > power out
Machines and Efficiency
electric appliances: devices that convert electric energy -> other forms of energy
T
d1
d2
T
d1 > d2
Formulas
W = Fd
Fa = mg
W = mgh
W = changeE
Ep = mgchangeh
E = Fd
Ek = 1/2 m v ^2
Eh = mchangeTc
P = w / t
P = fv
W = Fd
f
f
f
f
*
C
f
[--------------------concave mirror--------------------]
[-convex-]
Special Theory of Relativity
<DANGER>
movement of boat
apparent movement of hammer
<DANGER>
hammer dropped here
reference of the sailor
reference of observer
apparent motion of an object depends on frame of reference
ex: an observer watching a ship sail at a constant velocity, on the ship, a sailor drops a hammer
observer
inertial: frame is neither accelerating/decelerating
frame: area in which the laws of physics work the same for all observers within it
ex: Earth
The Michelson-Morley Experiment
physicist & chemist/physicist
determine ether
compare the speed of light (c= 3.00x10^8) through different orientated apparatuses
separated light -> 2 beams
null result
no difference in experiments (repeatedly)
Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity
1st postulate
laws of physics in all inertial frames of reference are the same
speed of light is always constant, regardless of movement/position
2nd postulate
eliminates the need for ether to be a frame of reference
relative to (c)
Simultaneity
2 observers may see different events at the same time
Time Dilation
story of twins
1 stayed on Earth, the other went into space (traveling at close to the speed of light)
at departure, both were 25 years of age
in relation to Earth, 50 years passed as the twins were separated
different frames of reference
the twin on Earth aged 75 years
the twin in space aged only a couple months
t = t0 / root 1 - v^2 / c^2
2D = ct
L = dt / 2
L = Lo * root 1 - v^2 / c^2
m = mo root 1 - v^2 / c^2
E = mc^2
u = v + u / 1 + vu^2 c^2
Formulas
** v < c **
relativistic _____ > proper _____
Length Contraction
distance/time not absolute
length contraction
only in direction of motion
Mass Increase
depends on frame of reference
mo
m
v
relation of mass and speed
Mass-Energy Equivalence
relationship between mass and energy
relativistic effects only exist at close to the speed of light
Nuclear Physics
atomic nucleus
protons (+), electrons (-)
Ernest Rutherford
gold foil experiment
tiny particles passed through and bounced off
Alpha Decay - alpha/helium particle
Beta Decay - beta/electron particle
Gamma Decay - gamma particle
Nuclear Fission
Nuclear Fusion
releases a lot of energy
splitting of an unstable nucleus
collisions with slow moving neutrons
2 almost equal nuclei
2/3 energized neutrons
Uranium 235
only natural isotope that undergoes nuclear fission
neutrons are always released - *chain reaction*
happenings of an atomic bomb denotation
Nuclear Reactors
reactor core
contains fuel rods
moderator surrounds fuel rods to slow down the collisions of neutrons
reaction control mechanism
control number of reactions
critical mass: amount of fissionable material required to initiate a chain reaction
fissionable material < critical mass - difficult to create a sustainable chain reaction
around core - ordinary water to absorb energy
heats other water in pressure chamber
CANDU reactor (Canada, deuterium and uranium)
uses natural uranium-238
uses heavy water (3 types of hydrogen) contains deuterium
allows use of natural uranium
safer, heavy water can be drained
cons: can become too hot -> meltdown of core
too hot -> containment is gone
blow up
waste can produce weapons
loss of uranium
waste products
the light is closer to the happy face
the sad face is further from the light
the happy face will see the light turn on before the sad face
2 small nuclei combine together
mass -> energy
form 1 large nucleus
product mass < reactant mass