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Ancient Roman Architecture

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by

Mag Ying

on 13 November 2014

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Transcript of Ancient Roman Architecture

Ancient Roman Architecture
Objective
To instill better understanding about Ancient Roman Architecture and its culture.
Introduction of Roman
Architecture
divided into two distinct eras
The Republic where the origins of the architecture of the Romans can be traced to Eutruscans (12th Century Bc).
1st Era
2nd Era
Started in 27 BC and is classed as the period of Empire.
Combination of elements from a variety of regional sources and styles
Forums
Baths
Basilicas
Project Outcomes
1. To enable us to acknowledge what the important structures available in ancient Roman civilization are.
2. To show how Roman architecture has influenced modern architecture.
3. To deepen our understanding of how Roman culture influenced its architecture.
4. To show the grand engineering feats in Roman architecture
Temples
Amphitheaters
Most of the building mainly made up by stones and marbles.
Great stones and marbles declared the wealth, dominance and power of the Ancient Roman civilisation.

Various Styles of Ancient Roman Architecture
Arch in Pont de Gard Roman Aqueduct
Dome
Vault
Column
Ancient Roman Walls
Opus Reticulatum :Form of brick work that consist of diamond shaped tufa blocks and then apply with mortar

Opus Incertum: It is a construct technique and uses irregular rocks that are applied with mortar
Opus Mixtum: Application of diamond shaped tufa blocks bricks that are applied with mortar
Colosseum
Colosseum in Ancient Rome
Large amphitheater in Roman World
Built by Emperor Vespasian ( Founded of the Flavian Dynasty)
Originally called the Flavian Amphitheater
Construction started at 72 AD
Stood complete after 8 years, by Titus
Emperor Vespasian
Structure of Colosseum
Estimate linear seating space was about 30,000 meters
Capable of holding 60,000 – 80,000 spectators
Different sections for spectators based on class and rank of society
Seating zones divided into 5 levels + special zone for the emperor and the Vestal Virgins.
Cross-section of the Colosseum
Podium : senators + emperor(but with personal imperial box)
Knights/ high-class citizens
Middle class citizen and military men
Low class Romans
Very poor and women are not allowed below than to the forth story
Structure of the Colosseum (Cont’)
An elliptical structure that reaches 189 metres long (615 feet)
156 meters wide (510 feet)
Overall area is around 6 acres (21,000 m2)
Facade height is 48 meters tall (157 feet) and divided into 3 floors with 80 arches each
36 feet underground
Structure of the Colosseum (Cont')
Beneath the arena is an underground which called as hypogeum
Hypogeum has two levels of subterranean network of tunnels and cages. The place where the gladiators and animals were held before the contest began
Has 8 entrances at ground floor, each one was numbered, similar to the exist and staircase
Spectators given tickets in form of numbered pottery shards which leads them to their rows and seats
Arena :The place for the gladiators’ battle held
Diagram below shows the a part of the colosseum

Video on how the elevator in Colosseum works
http://videos.howstuffworks.com/science-channel/29116-what-the-ancients-knew-the-coliseums-elevators-video.htm

Function of Colosseum
Entertain the people and allow the emperor to met his people and control them
Gladiators- they are normally prisoners of war and slaves who had been given chances to either stay as a slave or fight in the arena.
Fight? Either Live or Die
Audience tend to alters the decision whether to decide the fate of the loser
Main decision from the emperor
Live? Became famous and even earn some money only if they survive enough battels. Also have chance to regain their freedom
To mark the inauguration of the Colloseum in year 80 AD, Vespasian’s successor, Titus held 100 games in a row

Legend of the Colosseum that hasn’t be proven

During early days of the colosseum, ancient writers recorded that the building was used for naumachia or simulated sea battles
It was described in accounting of the Titus inaugural games that the arena is filled with water and there were sea battles including the specially trained swimming horses and bulls
This naval battle still debate among the historians because it has no prove that matches the idea of having sea battle in the arena.
The End
Group Members : Loo Wei Ying
Manson Lee
Melisa Nayagam
Michelle Tee
Magdalene Chua
Shai Durairaj

Conclusion
Roman architecture has provided us with magnificent structures that have, quite literally, stood the test of time. It became an imperial tool to demonstrate to the world that Rome was culturally superior because of the wealth, skills, and audacity to produce such edifices.
Roman Culture and their Temples
Their construction and maintenance was a major part of ancient Roman religion.
The main room (cella) housed the image of the deity to whom the temple was dedicated, and often a small altar for incense.
Behind the cella was a room or rooms used by temple attendants for storage of equipment and offerings.
The Roman temple architecture style was derived from the Etruscan model.
The Etruscans had adopted other styles into their temples, of which Greek architecture was the main influence. Therefore Roman temples were distinct but also based on both Etruscan and Greek plans.
Similarities of Ancient Roman Buildings
Arches and Aqueducts
Ancient Roman arches influenced the architecture of the Palladian window: this arched window is flanked by two lower rectangular openings, a motif that first appeared in the triumphal arches of ancient Rome.
The Roman aqueduct system was incredibly long and complicated, it was designed to provide water to the civilisation, and thus making the Roman one of the first civilisations to harness water power
Roman arches enabled the ancient Romans to rear vast edifices with the humblest materials, to build bridges, aqueducts, sewers, amphitheatres, and triumphal arches, as well as temples and palaces.
Domes
The Roman mastery of the arches lead to the creation of the dome
Domes were made possible through the Ancient Romans innovation of concrete, which they poured into molds on a wooden scaffolding
Arches were used beneath most domes to help channel their weight to the ground, making these buildings particularly resilient.
Roman Concrete and Roads

Roman concrete was a special mixture of rubble, lime, sand and pozzolana, a volcanic ash, which made it resistant to water.
The use of concrete played a key role in the pivotal development of roads
The Romans became adept at constructing roads, which they called viae.
Their most famous concrete structure, the Pantheon, still stands as the largest unreinforced concrete structure in the world after more than two thousand years.
Roman Architecture Influences in Modern Architecture
Domes
Arches

Dome of Florence
Dome of the US Capitol
Arch of Titus
Gateway Arch
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