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Diabetes

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Sagar Suri

on 26 April 2014

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Transcript of Diabetes

Diabetes
What Is Diabetes?
Diabetes is a disease in which there is too much glucose (blood sugar) in the blood due to insufficient or ineffective insulin (Blumer, 2004, p.9)
Romans noticed that some people had urine that was mellitus, the latin word for sweet
Diabetes is the short from of "diabetes mellitus" (Blumer, 2004,p.10)
What Is Diabetes?
There are two types of diabetes and they each have different causes:
Type 1:
Your body makes too little or no insulin. Beta cells in pancreas are being attacked by body's own cells and therefore can't produce insulin to take sugar out of the blood stream. Insulin is not produced (N/A, Type 1 vs Type 2 Diabetes)
Type 2:
Your body can't use the insulin it makes. The body has taken in so much sugar that insulin has become desensitized to the sugar and does not take it out of the blood stream. Insulin is not functional.
Causes Of Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder (N.A, Diabetes)
It's believed that a combination of genetic predisposition and additional (as yet unidentified) factors provoke the immune system into attacking and killing the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas.
Type 2 diabetes is mainly caused by insulin resistance (Topiwala, 2012).
No matter how much or how little insulin is made, the body can't use it as well as it should
Glucose can't be moved from the blood into cells
Over time, the excess sugar in the blood gradually poisons the pancreas causing it to make less insulin and making it even more difficult to keep blood glucose under control
Obesity is a leading cause of insulin resistance - 90% of people with type 2 diabetes are overweight
Genetic factors
A family history of the disease has been shown to increase the chances of getting it
Causes Of Type 2 Diabetes
Diagnosis
Type 2 develops slowly so people have no immediate symptoms so a blood test is the only way to check (Topiwala, 2012).
If your body has more than 126 mg/L of glucose, it shows risk factors for type 2 diabetes
Type 1 develops quick causing people to feel ill
High blood sugar can cause symptoms such as:
Specific Organs And Organ Systems Affected By Diabetes And Possible Outcomes
Diabetes can cause damage to the blood vessels in your eyes (Newell,2011). Damage resulting from diabetes can lead to:
•glaucoma

•cataracts

•structural changes to the retina

•blindness in rare cases
Eyes
Nervous System
A high amount of glucose (blood sugar) in somebody’s blood circulation can damage to the nerves in their body and this can lead to (Newell, 2011):

•numbness

•tingling

•pain in the legs and feet

•No feeling of cuts and pain

•Slow healing

•amputations (severe damage only)
Heart
Diabetic people are twice are at least twice as likely as someone who does not have diabetes to have heart disease or a stroke (Newell, 2011).
This is a result of damaged blood vessels that become narrow
Kidneys
Having high levels of glucose makes kidneys work harder to filter blood (Newell, 2011).
Overworked kidneys can lead to chronic kidney disease and complete failure.
Liver
Diabetes can cause a condition called nonalcoholic fatty liver disease which means the liver is having difficulty processing fats (Newell, 2011).
Medical Treatment
Type 1 Treatment:
•Almost always requires a daily injection of insulin (Junior).
•Insulin must be given as an injection just under the skin, if taken by mouth, insulin would be destroyed in the stomach before it could get into the blood where it is needed.

Type 2 Treatment:
•lose weight if the patient is obese (Junior).
•Start an exercise program
•If blood sugar remains high after 3-6 months of exercise, the patient will be started on an oral medication to help control blood sugar levels.
•Stay healthy, have good diet and exercise often
•Gradually, even people with type 2 diabetes may require insulin injections to control their blood sugar levels
Treatment At Home
A healthy diet is extremely helpful in controlling blood sugar levels and preventing diabetes complications (Junior).
Exercise. It doesn’t matter how much, even walking for 20 minutes 3 times a week is beneficial
Limit alcohol to less than 7 times a week and never drink more than one or two glasses.
Smoking or using any other form of tobacco is extremely dangerous and must be stopped.
When a diabetic person smokes, they are raising the risks for nearly every complication of diabetes
Hunger
Urinating often
Weight loss

Blurry vision
Excess thirst
Fatigue

Body Map Illustrating Body Parts Affected By Diabetes
http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/consumer/problems_humanbody_male.htm
Interesting Facts
According to WHO there are 246 million people in the world living with diabetes (Jacoby, 2005).
This is almost 6% of the world's adult population.
India is the diabetes capital of the world
Every twenty one seconds, someone is diagnosed with diabetes.
There is usually no early symptom of the disease.
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David B. Jacoby, (2005) Diabetes. Encyclopedia of Family Heath
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Full transcript