Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

The Language of Art Architecture

No description
by

Sarah Tamez

on 31 March 2017

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of The Language of Art Architecture

The Formal Elements
LIGHT AND COLOR
Color
Color Perception
Texture/Pattern, Time and Motion
Shape and Space
Time and Motion
Formal Elements
Line
Light and value
Color
Texture and pattern
Shape and Volume
Space




Value Diagram.
A. Achromatic value scale, showing only black, white, and gray tones.
B. Chromatic value scale, showing various values of red. C. Values can create the illusion of volume.
In art and architecture, light might be an actual element
Light and color are elements that affect the creation of space in art.
In buildings, the control of light is an essential design element, whether with skylights, windows, or artificial lights.
Hu
e
Pure state of color in the spectrum and the colors name Ex. red, yellow green etc..
without tint or shade
Value
In color, value is lightness and darkness within a hue
When adding black to color
Creating a shade
When adding white to color
Creating a tint
Additive
Artist mix colors through one of two systems: Additive and subtractive
Additive Color System
Light emitting media
No light produces darkness (blackness)
All light added together makes the brightest, whitest light.
Properties of Color
Hue
Value
Intensity

Subtractive
Primary Colors
Primary Colors
Red, Yellow, Blue
Secondary Color - Mixing the Primary
Orange, Green, Violet
Tertiary Color- Mixing one primary with a Secondary
Blue Green, Red Orange
Primary Colors
Red
Blue
Green
Analogous Colors
Are next to each other on the color wheel
Complementary
Opposite of each other
When mixing become dull
Artist mixing pigments
Pigments
powdered substances grounded to create paint
Binders
oil, acrylic polymer, egg



Color Perspective is Relative
we see colors differently depending on their surroundings
In architecture
creates visual interest
In the Great Mosque of Cordoba the pattern is ornamentation that is not structurally necessary
They direct your eye to certain features of a building.
They have symbolic values
A lot of art is static, it doesn't move
However, time and motion can
still be important elements, it
can be implied

Consider how time and motion may be incorporated in visual art by examining issues of Marcel Duchamp’s Nude Descending a Staircase.
.


Chance/Improvisation/Spontaneity
Strongly affects visual organization of an artwork
Opportunity for uniqueness
Uncontrolled outcomes

Principles of Design
Balance
Rhythm, Repetition, and Pattern
Proportion and scale
Emphasis and Focal Point
Unity and variety

Space
One Point Perspective
Two Point Perspective
Robert Smithson
Spiral Jetty
1970
Emphasis and Focal Point
Liberty Leading the People
EUGENE DELACROIX
1830
Fig. 2.32 Claes Oldenburg, Coosje van Bruggen, and Frank O. Gehry. The Binocular Entrance to the Chiat Building, Venice, California.
Scale and Proportion
Scale describes the dimensions of an art object in relation to the original object or objects around it.
Manipulation of proportion and scale alters our response to an artwork.

Pattern Repetition, and Rhythm
Pattern is the systematic repetitive use of the same motif or design and it can be used as a decorative tool.
Patterns usually repeat in a predictable manner.
Cai Guo-Qiang
Black Rainbow: Explosion Project for Valencia, Spain.
2005.

Blanket, Tlingit people, Mountain goat wool and cedar bark.
31" x 71".
Great Mosque of Cordoba, Interior, 786.

Detail of Deesis Mosaic in Hagia Sophia. Believed to be 1185-1204. Mosaic Tile
Bruce Nauman, Human/Need/Desire, 1983, Neon tubing, transfomer, and wire.
Figure 02-08 Recumbent Female Nude Figure Asleep, ROSSO FIORENTINO,
1530-1540. 5" x 9 1/2".

Marcel Duchamp. Nude Descending a Staircase (No. 2), 1912. Oil on canvas, 57 7/8” X 35 1/8”. Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia.

Formal Elements
Lines
Line Orientation
Implied lines

Line where no continuous mark connects one point to anther but where the connection is nonetheless visually suggested.
So Basically lines don't physically exist.
A line completed by the viewer
Paul Klee, They're Biting, 1920. Draing and oil on paper
Conveys emotional attributes.
It can express range of emotions
The Weeping Woman
Pablo Picasso
1937
Reading
Pablo Picasso
1932
Light
Most art does not emit or
manipulate light itself, but reflects ambient light, which is the light all around us.
Value
Shading and Modeling
Louise Nevelson.
Mirror Image I,
1969.
Painted wood.

Sculpture and architecture may have value difference simply because of the many angles at which light hits and reflect off their surfaces
The Art of Painting
Johannes Vermeer
1665-1668

Neutral
very low intensity
cream, tan beige
Intensity or Saturation or Chroma
the brightness, and dullness of a hue
High Intensity
brilliant, vivid, and saturated
Low Intensity
faded, dull
Black and white have value not intensity
Lady with the Wine Glass
Johannes Vermeer
1659–1660
is artist mixing pigments to control the light that is reflected from them
Deer
Tomohiro Inaba
2011
Lion capital of Ashoka ,
250 BCE

Zebra head
Jin Yong Ho
2010
Tactile/Actual Texture
Visual texture appears to be actual, but is an illusion.

Portrait of Maria Serra Pallavicino
Peter Paul Rubens
1606


Maria Antonia aged 12
Martin van Meytens
1767-1768.
This self portrait by Rembrandt is an example of simulated, or implied volume. The face looks three-dimensional. In actuality, however, it is a two-dmensional (flat) artwork, a print.
Rembrandt Van Rijn
Self-portrait in a cap, with eyes wide open
1630
This group of sculptures by Magdalena Akanowicz have actual volume; they are three-dimensional. Because the figures are open they allow a glimpse of what the inside of a sculpture looks like, (including welded together sections of separate castings). This openess gives a sense of volume. If they were closed, they would appear to have density, or mass.
Atmospheric Perspective
Space refers to the actual space in which a work of art exists, or an illusion of space created
There are three kinds
2D
Sculpture and Architecture
Performance art, installation

Bowing Dancers
Edgar Degas

Refers to the light, bleached out, fuzzy handling distant forms to make them seem far away.
Mr. and Mrs. Andrews
Thomas Gainborough
2D
Linear Perspective
Linear perspective, which operates on the theory that parallel lines appear to converge as they recede. They seem to meet on an imaginary line called the horizon line or at eye level.
Sculpture and Architecture
Sculpture have two types of space
• Negative
o Made of the air around and inside the sculpture
• Positive
o Are made of the materials of the sculpture

Angel of the North
Sir Antony Gormley
1998
F&F Tower in Panama City
Pinzon Lozano & Associate's
2008-2011

Installation or Performance Art
Can be particular significant, because part of the meaning comes from the environment.
Huang Yong Ping
Bat Project I
2001
Balance
Balance refers to even distribution of weight in a composition.
In works, balance can be symmetrical, asymmetrical, or radial.
In sculpture, actual weight is the physical weight of materials in pounds.
All art deals with visual weight, or the apparent "heaviness" or "lightness" of the forms in the composition.
Weight usually means the amount of attention an element commands from the viewer
Large shapes more attention, vivid colors weigh more then faded

Nude Descending a Staircase
Marcel Duchamp
we will learn about the language of art and architecture by defining their visual elements and the principles of their arrangement in composition.
The basic units of Visual Arts
Actual Lines
Implied Lines
Outline and Contour
Line Direction
Line Quality

Christina's World
Andrew Wyeth
1948
The lights alternate between desire and need to suggest the fluctuating motivations for human behavior
In 2D art artist use value to represent the various levels of light that reflects off objects
Value is one step on a gradation from light and dark
Artist can manipulate gradations in values to create the appearance of natural light n objects. .
Eye fatigue also affects our
color perception.
Visual Texture
Patter is an important tool for thinking visually
They help organize ideas and concepts into visual diagrams that make relationships clear
You see them in street maps, mechanical diagrams, floor plans and flow charts.
Unity
is the quality of overall cohesion within a work of art.
creates a sense of harmony and wholeness, by using similar elements within the composition and placing them in a way that brings them all together.
Variety
is the element of differences within an art work
What makes it interesting
the Floating Stage on Lake Constance in Bregenz, Austria
The Creation of Adam
Michelangelo
1511-1512
Actual Lines
They physically exist and can be broad, thin, straight, jagged, etc.
Pablo Picasso
The Kitchen
1948
Blind Contour Drawing
Clive Powsey
One of the most fundamental elements of nature is line.
Lines, in fact, sometimes play a major role in human history.
- There are different types of lines

Outline and Contour Line
An important feature of line is that it indicates the edge of a two dimensional shape or a three dimensional form
Outline
a line that indicates a shape
In Nara Yashitomo's Country Home, heavy black outlines delinate the little girl, ground, home and the words.
Contour Lines
Contour lines also define the outer edges of shapes, however, unlike outlines, contour lines also include interior detail, can vary in thickness and can suggest the volume of a shape.


Assumption and Consecration of the Virgin
Titian
1516-1518
Shoki Demon Queller
Kitagawa Utamaro
1745
Ellsworth Kelly's Three Panels: Orange, Dark Gray, Green applies the shapes to the gallery wall as though it were the canvas.
Shapes between figures are known as negative shapes, and the figures themselves are positive shapes.


Martin Puryear's
Self appears to possess weight and density, but is lightweight and made from wood.

Self
Martin Puryear
1978
Standing vertical masses in Barbara Hepworth's Two Figures have negative spaces carved into them.
The left-hand figure especially seems to represent anatomical features.

Two Figures
Barbara Hepworth
1947–48
One-point linear perspective relies on a single point, or vanishing point, on the viewer's horizon to represent parallel receding lines.

Perspective analysis of Duccio, Annunciation of the Death of the Virgin, from the Maestà Altarpiece.
1308–11
The piece, despite Duccio's attempt to create a realistic space via intuition, does not succeed in having a single vanishing point.

Leonardo da Vinci's The Last Supper employs convincing perspective.
The vanishing point is located behind Jesus, thus drawing all attention to him.

Leonardo da Vinci, The Last Supper. ca. 1495–98
Two-point linear perspective results in a more dynamic composition.
Gustave Caillebotte's Place de l'Europe on a Rainy Day depicts an intersection of five streets through a series of vanishing points.
The canvas is divided into four equal rectangles formed by the vertical line of the lamppost and the horizon line.

Two-point linear perspective
Gustave Caillebotte's Place de l'Europe on a Rainy Day depicts an intersection of five streets through a series of vanishing points.
The canvas is divided into four equal rectangles formed by the vertical line of the lamppost and the horizon line.

Gustave Caillebotte's
Place de l'Europe on a Rainy Day
1876-1877
The Near and Far
Flattening of the distance between near and far became a lasting trend.
Janine Antoni appears to walk along the horizon in Touch, a video work featuring the artist walking on a tightrope.
The horizon line can never truly be reached, yet it is a place that has been contemplated through culture over time.

Photographs and media with perspective depict space as "real" because it is a monocular, or one-eyed, point of view. However, our actual vision is binocular. We see with both eyes.
Under most conditions, our eyes have the capacity to synthesize these different points of view into a unitary image.
The stereoscope was invented in the nineteenth century to imitate binocular vision.
Two pictures of the same subject, taken from slightly different points of view

Distortions of Space and Foreshortening
Photographer unknown,
Man with Big Shoes.
1890
Drawing to life a perspective such as that in
Dürer's Draftsman Drawing a Female Nude would result in a figure whose lower body would be too large in comparison to her head.

Albrecht Dürer, Draftsman Drawing a Female Nude. 1538
Mantegna's The Dead Christ
applies foreshortening, adjusting the
dimensions of closer extremities to make up for
the distortion created by the point of view.

Japanese prints that flooded European markets after 1853 combined close-up views of nearby objects with views of distant landscapes.
Utagawa Hiroshige's Moon Pine, Ueno contains a large gap between the pine in the foreground and the city behind.
This particular tree was named for its looping round branch.

Venezuelan artist Carlos Cruz-Diez saturated
three gallery chambers in red, green, and blue in his Chromosaturation.

Natural light helps define spatial relationships.
Artists can control the experience of their work through the manipulation of light.

Leonardo da Vinci concerned himself with writing "rules" for atmospheric or aerial perspective.
Objects that are farther away appear less distinct, bluer in color, and have reduced light/dark contrast.

Leonardo's Madonna of the Rocks shows three groupings of rocks with different distances marked only by atmospheric perspective.
The one nearest to the viewer is on the right, and the one on the left that appears blue is the farthest.
We assume that the rocks in the distance are the same brown, yet the atmosphere has changed them, making them appear blue.

Atmospheric Perspective
Bowing Dancers
Edgar Degas

Refers to the light, bleached out, fuzzy handling distant forms to make them seem far away.
Pat Steir's Pink Chrysanthemum and Night Chrysanthemum feature three views of the same flower in stages of abstraction.
Western culture often associates light with good and darkness with evil.

Pink Chrysanthemum
Pat Steir
1984
Night Chrysanthemum
Pat Steir
1984
Chiaroscuro refers to the balance of light and shade in a work, most often exhibited when the artist transitions from light to dark around a curved surface.
Using chiaroscuro on a curved surface is called modeling.

Paul Colin drew Figure of a Woman on beige paper, indicating shadow with black crayon and light with white crayon.
Highlights are indicated by white and directly reflect the light source.
Areas of shadow include the shadow proper, the core of the shadow, and the darkest cast shadow.

Figure of a Woman
Paul Colin
1930
Tenebrism is a technique separate from modeling in which areas of dark contrast sharply with smaller, brightly illuminated areas.
Artemisia Gentileschi's Judith and Maidservant with the Head of Holofernes lights the heroic Judith strongly with a candle, with her hand casting a powerful shadow over her face.

Judith and Maidservant with the Head of Holofernes
Artemisia Gentileschi
1625
Hatching and Cross-Hatching
Hatching is an area of closely spaced parallel lines.
The Coiffure by Mary Cassatt uses parallel lines to render the depth of shadow in the room.

The Coiffure
Mary Cassatt
1891
Michelangelo's Head of a Satyr employs hatching on the back of the figure's neck and head.
It also features cross-hatching, where one set of hatches is crossed at an angle by one or more sets of hatches, creating a darker area of lines.

Head of a Satyr
Michelangelo
1620–30
On the evening of June 29, 2002, Cai Guo-Qiang's Transient Rainbow was displayed across the East River in New York City.
It was a fireworks display in the colors of the rainbow.
The symbolic message was one of hope, renewal, and healing in a post-9/11 period.

Michelangelo's frescoes in the Sistine Chapel were thought to have been painted in dull, somber hues, but were discovered to have been covered with centuries of dust, smoke, grease, and animal glue.

Colors can be employed by artist in different ways to achieve a wide variety of effects.
Analogous color schemes are composed of neighboring hues on the color wheel.
They are often organized on the basis of color temperature.
Orange, Red and Yellow are Warm
Green Blue, Violet are Cool

Color Schemes
Jane Hammond's Fallen consists of warm yellows, oranges, reds, and the occasional green, exuding warmth.
Each leaf is inscribed with the name of a soldier killed in the Iraq War, a testament to tragedy and healing.

Complementary color schemes include hues opposite each other on the color wheel.
Simultaneous contrast occurs when two complementary colors appear brighter when placed next to each other without any mixing.

The Cara Grande features brilliant blue-violet feathers surrounding a yellow-orange face.
Color interactions in Gerhard Richter's 180 Farben creates the effect of gray spots in between blocks of color, a trick of the eye.

Monochromatic works feature a single color from a closed or restricted palette.
The Dylan Painting by Brice Marden appears to be a single purplish gray, but when viewed in person the surface changes with the light.

Brice Marden
The Dylan Painting
1966/1986
Phillip K. Smith III's work, Lucid Stead, consists of a homesteader's shack transformed by alternating bands of mirror and weathered siding.
At night, LED lights illuminate windows and the cracks between the structure's bands reveal interior light.
The pace of change is the theme at the heart of the work: time and motion.

Texture refers to the surface characteristics, and may be tactile or visual.
It can be described as rough or smooth, slimy or soft; it may draw a desire to touch or repulsion.
Tactile (Actual) Texture
physical surface variations
perceived by touch
Visual Texture
Visual texture appears to be actual, but is an illusion.
Sometimes a medium has an inherent texture
Ex. Mosaic
method of creating pictures out of small colored glass or stone pieces, affixed to a surface

Lucid Stead.
Phillip K. Smith III
2013


While we have discussed the most important formal elements, several other elements an contribute significantly to an effective work of art: texture, time and motion.
Texture
Manuel Neri, Mujer Pegada Series No. 2. 1985–86
Michelangelo, Pietà.1501
Michelangelo's Pietà transforms its marble medium into lifelike figures with gentle drapery.

Manuel Neri's bronze sculpture from the Mujer Pegada Series emphasizes both a smooth, finished texture and a rough texture beside loose brushstrokes.


Max Ernst's The Horde was created through frottage, a technique where an artist puts a sheet of paper over textured materials then rubs across the paper with a pencil or crayon.

William A. Garnett produced an aerial view of strip farms across an eroding landscape to study American land-use practices.
Predictable patterns of farming contrast the unfarmed regions, particularly apparent in the upper left of the photo.
The photograph itself is smooth, therefore its texture is visual.

Inherent Texture
Narrative Arts
When a depiction of a given event implies that we are witnessing a photographic "frozen moment," or an instant of time taken from a larger sequence of events, the single image may be understood as part of a larger narrative sequence
Gianlorenzo Bernini, David. 1623
Michelangelo, David, 1501–04
Traditionally, plastic arts such as painting and sculpture are spatial; written arts such as music and literature are temporal.
We experience a painting or sculpture all at once
We experience a painting or sculpture all at once
Music is linear, having a beginning, middle, and end.
However, time plays a greater role in plastic arts, in part through narrative structure.

Art can also, in and of itself, invite us to experience it in a linear or temporal way.
Isidro Escamilla's Virgin of Guadalupe
narrates the event of Juan Diego beholding a dark-skinned woman who advised him to build a Christian church.

Seeing over Time
Monet's famous lily pond
painting were designed to compel the viewer to move about the room in which they are exhibited.

Illusion of Movement
In optical painting, or "Op Art," physical characteristics of formal elements are manipulated to stimulate the nervous system into thinking it perceives movement.

Bridget Riley's large-canvas Drift No. 2 appears
to wave and roll despite being quite fixed to the canvas.

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2716582/The-stomach-churning-optical-illusions-trippy-come-health-warning.html
Symmetrical representations recall Leonardo's Study.
When each side is exactly the same, it is called absolute symmetry.
When there are minor discrepancies but the overall effect is symmetrical, it is called bilateral symmetry.

Leonardo da Vinci
Study of Human Proportion: The Vitruvian Man
1492
Leonardo da Vinci's Study of Human Proportion: The Vitruvian Man embodies all the qualities of design.
Symmetry, proportion, and ratio derive from the perfection of the human figure.
The figure's limbs fit perfectly within their frame.

a palm is four fingers
a foot is four palms
a cubit is six palms
four cubits make a man
a pace is four cubits
a man is 24 palms
The Taj Mahal is one of the most symmetrically balanced buildings in the world.
Each facade is identical with openings that give the building a sense of weightlessness.

Enguerrand Quarton
Coronation of the Virgin.
1453–54
Enguerrand Quarton's Coronation of the Virgin is a composition featuring small details at its edges with a cruciform shape dominating the whole.
Father and Son flank Mary with near-perfect symmetry.

Frida Kahlo's Las Dos Fridas is symmetrically balanced.
A Frida dressed in native Tehuana costume is connected to the mirrored Frida rejected by Diego Rivera by a vein, which the rejected Frida cuts off with surgical scissors.
Some art historians have suggested that the two figures in the painting are a representation of Frida's dual heritage.
Her father, Guillermo Kahlo, was German; while her mother, Matilde Calderon, was a mix of Spanish and Amerindian.

Frida Kahlo
Las Dos Fridas (The Two Fridas)
1939
A composition that lacks symmetry can still be balanced if sides possess the same visual weight; this is called asymmetry.
While there are only a few ways in which a work can appear balanced, but there are no "laws" about how this can be achieved.

Johannes Vermeer
Woman Holding a Balance
1664
Johannes Vermeer's Woman Holding a Balance contains several references to balance, yet retains asymmetry of subject matter.
The central axis of the composition shows a woman weighing her jewelry with scales; behind her is a painting in which Christ weighs all souls during the Last Judgment.

In radial balance, everything radiates outward from a central point.
The "rose window" above the south portal of Chartres Cathedral is an example.
The Villa La Rotonda by Andrea Palladio also features radial balance.
The central domed rotunda is flanked by four symmetrical reception rooms.

Rose window, south transept, Chartres Cathedral
1215
Andrea Palladio, Villa La Rotonda
Begun 1560s
The focal point of a composition is an area to which the artist draws the viewer's attention the most.
Strong contrasts of light and color can create a focal point easily.


Still Life with Lobster uses complementary colors with the focal lobster in red and everything else in green.
Light in Georges de La Tour's Joseph the Carpenter draws attention away from Joseph and to the brightly lit face of Christ, symbolizing the Divine Light.
It is also possible to make a work that is afocal, or without a single point of focus.

Lucas Samaras's Room No. 2 is an 8-by-8-foot space lined entirely with mirrors.
Only two visitors are allowed inside simultaneously.
Viewer and work become inseparable; the viewer enables the work, yet loses their individuality.

Frank Lloyd Wrigh Fallingwater Pictures
1935
Creative Process
A Multiplication of Focal Points:Diego Velázquez's Las Meninas
An obvious focal point is the infanta Margarita at center, but figures outside of her central group gaze away from the infanta.
Their focal point appears to be the King and Queen, who are reflected in the mirror at the opposite end of the room.

Diego Velázquez
Philip IV, King of Spain
1652–53
Diego Velázquez
Portrait of Queen Mariana
1656
Diego Velázquez, Las Meninas (The Maids of Honor).
1656
A Multiplication of Focal Points:Diego Velázquez's Las Meninas
Either the royal couple is the actual subject of the painting or they have entered the room to see their daughter being painted; or, in fact, their images are a double portrait rather than themselves reflected in the mirror.
The painting depicts a work-in-progress, although it is unclear what that work is.

Scale describes the dimensions of an art object in relation to the original object or objects around it.
Julie Mehretu's Mural is "large-scale" at 80 feet long and 23 feet high.
When looking at a textbook or screen reproduction, it is important to consider the actual size of the work.

Claude Monet
Autumn on the Seine, Argenteuil
1873
Church of Christ of Chora, Istanbul
11th –12th century
Julie Mehretu
Mural, detail
2010
Comparing Do-Ho Suh's Public Figures and Kara Walker's Subtlety, both artists have manipulated the scale of the object depicted.
Do-Ho Suh's work shows the people carrying the pediment in a diminished scale.
The expected figure atop the pedestal is purposely absent.

Do-Ho Suh
Public Figures
1998–99
Kara Walker, A Subtlety: The Marvelous Sugar Baby, an Homage to the unpaid and overworked Artisans who have refined our Sweet tastes from the cane fields to the Kitchens of the New World on the Occasion of the demolition of the Domino Sugar Refining Plant.
2014
Walker's work is a large, exaggerated homage to carved sugar centerpieces that would have decorated the tables of the upper classes through history
Artists can manipulate scale through the relative scale of objects.
An object "closer" to us is larger, while one that recesses in to the background appears smaller.

Hokusai's views of Mount Fuji subvert the knowledge of how large the mountain is.
The Great Wave off Kanagawa shows two boats in a tumultuous wave in the foreground, visually diminishing the importance of Fuji in the distance.

A Girl
Ron Mueck
Albert Bierstadt
Emigrants Crossing the Plains
1867
Caspar David Friedrich
Wanderer above the Sea of Fog
1818
Proportion refers to the relationship between parts of an object and the whole.


Ingres's Mme. Rivière appears at first to be natural, but upon closer inspection, her arm has been elongated to accommodate the curve of the frame.
Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres La Grande Odalisque
1814
Madonna and Child with Angels and St. Jerome,
Parmigianino
1535-40
Greek sculptor Polyclitus described "perfect" proportions of the human body in a text called The Canon.
Both the text and the original Doryphoros statue were lost, but both proclaim that each part of the body is a common fraction of the figure's height.
The height of the head ought to be one-eighth and the breadth of the shoulders one-fourth of the total height of the body.
Mathematical harmony
The Greek Parthenon possesses proportions on the facade in a ratio based on the algebraic formula x = 2y + 1.
The ratio of the length of the top step of the platform (or stylobate) to its width is 9:4.

The Parthenon is a good example of standard Classical Greek temple
This style of temple was called Doric.
Columns of no base, a simple cushion capital and a shaft that was fluted or carved from top to bottom .
The architects, Itkinos and Kallikarates, treated it more like a sculpture then a piece of architecture.
The Parthenon had two interior rooms for housing sacred objects.
Religious ceremonies took place outside, so originally the exterior was richly adorned with sculpture and was brightly painted.
Large sculptures of the gods stood in the pediment and near the roof, and a long band of sculpture, which was called a frieze, on the top outside walls of the Parthenon’s two inner chambers.
The Lindisfarne Gospels, particularly the Cross page, features pre-Christian pagan motifs woven into Christian imagery.
Beasts were drawn in "animal style" with intricate, ribbonlike traceries.

Cross page from the Lindisfarne Gospels.
ca. 700
Patterned kente cloths from Ghana's Ewe and Asante societies contained patterns that designated social prestige.

African sculptor El Anatsui used kente cloths as inspiration for his pieces, which are made from discarded aluminum caps and seals rather than strips of cloth.

Jacob Lawrence establishes rhythm in Barber Shop through the repetition of both shape and color.
Each diamond-shaped client wears a different colored apron; the color is repeated again elsewhere in the work
Jacob Lawrence
Barber Shop
1946
Auguste Rodin's The Gates of Hell was based on Dante's Inferno and features nearly 200 figures.
At the top, a grouping of figures called The Three Shades is actually the same figure cast three times and arranged in a semicircle.
Below, the posture of Adam echoes the Shades, implying that it was he who brought us to the Gates of Hell.

Layla Ali's Greenheads series features brown-skinned, gender-neutral "Others" that appear at once alien and familiar.
In this piece, three nearly identical Greenheads have been hanged in front of a fourth victim.
It symbolizes that such a horrifying act can inevitably happen again, though the place could be anywhere.

In Barber Shop, Lawrence kept his figures consistent, yet unique.
If every subject or figure were the same, there would be no need to discuss the unity of diversity that makes a work "complete."
Generally, variety must coexist with unity in order for the work to succeed.

Artist also try to not just find variety but opposition and contradictions.
Louise Lawler's Pollock and Tureen brings seemingly contradictory objects in a state of opposition and tension.
The Pollock painting is transformed into a decorative object that seems as marketable and empty of its original meaning when placed by the tureen.

M.C. Escher
Horseman
1946
Repetition can imply monotony, but if certain elements are used repeatedly, they can create a visual rhythm.
Rhythm is a strong, regular, repeated pattern that forms a harmonious sequence or correlation of colors or elements, which usually develops from organizing the space between objects.
This rhythmic flow, which is accomplished by repetition, acts as a unifying device for the composition and is often used to suggest movement.
The repetition might be limited to only an instance or two: not enough to create a pattern or rhythm, but enough to cause a visual echo and reinforce or accent certain aspects of the work.
Bruce Barnbaum
Dance of the Corn Lilies
1991
A flowing rhythm is often most seen in nature .The waves in this picture create a rhythm of movement. The rhythm seems to have the same pattern and texture
Jacob Lawrence
Barber Shop
1946
Shape refers to two-dimensional art
Mass and Volume refers to three-dimensional works
A mass is a solid that occupies three-dimensional volume.
Volume is how much space it takes an object takes
For example, a circle is a shape but a sphere can have mass or volume.
Bernardo Oriental
Jorge Marin


Regular Shapes
circle, square, triangle etc...
Irregular
Unique, have no definite name
Organic or bio-morphic


Vaquero
Luis Jimenez
“Vaquero” is hollow inside. A woven fiberglass fabric inside the sculpture serves as a matrix to hold the resin. Jiménez once worked with fiberglass as an apprentice in his father’s sign-making shop in El Paso, Texas.
Figure 02-19 That Profile, MARTIN PURYEAR, 1997-1999. Stainless steel, bronze.
540" x 360" x 136".

The sculpture encompasses a large volume but has little mass
made from 1300 boxing speed bags hanging from a cumulative 5 miles of stainless steel cable and 2 miles of aluminum tubing that stands 22 feet high
reALIze
Michael Kalish

Negative Space
Dreaming of Joy
Ran Hwang
2008
buttons pins stainless steel bars
More Complex illusions of Space
are created through perspective,
a group of methods ofr creating the illusion of depth on a flat picture plane
Trinity
Masaccio
1425
The installation consists of hundreds of
Chinese scissors suspended from the ceiling, pointing downwards. The hovering, massive cloud of scissors alludes to distant fear, looming violence and worrisome uncertainty. The performer sits beneath the countless sharp blades of the scissors, and performs an on-going simple task of mending.

Beili Liu
The Mending Project
Emma Sulkowicz
Sometimes sculptures often require us to move around them in order to appreciate them fully
Apollo and Daphne
Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini
1622-1625
Black Ghost in Klaipeda, Lithuania
S. Jurkus and S. Plotnikovas and
architects V. Dapkevičius and V. Balsys
Some Sculptures actually move
Paul Gauguin
Christ in the Garden of Olives
1889
George Seurat
A Sunday on La Grande Jatte
1884
Leda and the Swan
Peter Paul Rubens
1530
Beheading
Rigoberto Gonzalez
On the 17th of February of 2009 in Reynosa, Tamaulipas, Mexico
Rigoberto Gonzalez
2010
Portrait of Igor Stravinsky
Pablo Picasso
1920
Line Quality
Caspar David Friedrich
The wanderer above the sea of fog
1818
Most viewers react instinctively to the expressive qualities of line, and these expressive qualities are closely associated with their orientation in the composition.
A line's direction can describe spatial relationships in the world
Horizontal lines suggest landscape and the horizon. They impart a sense of peacefulness, vastness, and constancy.

Vertical lines suggest alert attention. They imply strength, power, and authority.
Cathedral of Our Lady of Chartres
Chartres, France 1193--1250

Diagonal lines suggest action and movement. They convey dynamism, vitality, and animation.
Laocoön and his sons
200 BC.
Full transcript