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Art Elements and Design Principles

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Sarah Tamez

on 1 October 2018

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Transcript of Art Elements and Design Principles

The Formal Elements
Color Perception
Shape and Space
Time and Motion
Light and color are elements that affect the creation of space in art.
In buildings, the control of light is an essential design element, whether with skylights, windows, or artificial lights.

Color Perspective is Relative
we see colors differently depending on their surroundings
A lot of art is static, it doesn't move
However, time and motion can
still be important elements, it
can be implied

Consider how time and motion may be incorporated in visual art by examining issues of Marcel Duchamp’s Nude Descending a Staircase.

Strongly affects visual organization of an artwork
Opportunity for uniqueness
Uncontrolled outcomes

Principles of Design
Rhythm, Repetition, and Pattern
Proportion and scale
Emphasis and Focal Point
Unity and variety

One Point Perspective
Two Point Perspective
Robert Smithson
Spiral Jetty
Emphasis and Focal Point
Liberty Leading the People
Fig. 2.32 Claes Oldenburg, Coosje van Bruggen, and Frank O. Gehry. The Binocular Entrance to the Chiat Building, Venice, California.
Scale and Proportion
Scale describes the dimensions of an art object in relation to the original object or objects around it.
Manipulation of proportion and scale alters our response to an artwork.

Cai Guo-Qiang
Black Rainbow: Explosion Project for Valencia, Spain.

Marcel Duchamp. Nude Descending a Staircase (No. 2), 1912. Oil on canvas, 57 7/8” X 35 1/8”. Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia.

Formal Elements
This self portrait by Rembrandt is an example of simulated, or implied volume. The face looks three-dimensional. In actuality, however, it is a two-dmensional (flat) artwork, a print.
Rembrandt Van Rijn
Self-portrait in a cap, with eyes wide open
This group of sculptures by Magdalena Akanowicz have actual volume; they are three-dimensional. Because the figures are open they allow a glimpse of what the inside of a sculpture looks like, (including welded together sections of separate castings). This openess gives a sense of volume. If they were closed, they would appear to have density, or mass.
Atmospheric Perspective
Space refers to the actual space in which a work of art exists, or an illusion of space created
There are three kinds
Sculpture and Architecture
Performance art, installation

Bowing Dancers
Edgar Degas

Refers to the light, bleached out, fuzzy handling distant forms to make them seem far away.
Mr. and Mrs. Andrews
Thomas Gainborough
Linear Perspective
Linear perspective, which operates on the theory that parallel lines appear to converge as they recede. They seem to meet on an imaginary line called the horizon line or at eye level.
Sculpture and Architecture
Sculpture have two types of space
• Negative
o Made of the air around and inside the sculpture
• Positive
o Are made of the materials of the sculpture

Angel of the North
Sir Antony Gormley
F&F Tower in Panama City
Pinzon Lozano & Associate's

Installation or Performance Art
Can be particular significant, because part of the meaning comes from the environment.
Huang Yong Ping
Bat Project I
Balance refers to even distribution of weight in a composition.
In works, balance can be symmetrical, asymmetrical, or radial.
In sculpture, actual weight is the physical weight of materials in pounds.
All art deals with visual weight, or the apparent "heaviness" or "lightness" of the forms in the composition.
Weight usually means the amount of attention an element commands from the viewer
Large shapes more attention, vivid colors weigh more then faded

Nude Descending a Staircase
Marcel Duchamp
we will learn about the language of art and architecture by defining their visual elements and the principles of their arrangement in composition.
Eye fatigue also affects our
color perception.
is the quality of overall cohesion within a work of art.
creates a sense of harmony and wholeness, by using similar elements within the composition and placing them in a way that brings them all together.
is the element of differences within an art work
What makes it interesting
the Floating Stage on Lake Constance in Bregenz, Austria
Ellsworth Kelly's Three Panels: Orange, Dark Gray, Green applies the shapes to the gallery wall as though it were the canvas.
Shapes between figures are known as negative shapes, and the figures themselves are positive shapes.

Martin Puryear's
Self appears to possess weight and density, but is lightweight and made from wood.

Martin Puryear
Standing vertical masses in Barbara Hepworth's Two Figures have negative spaces carved into them.
The left-hand figure especially seems to represent anatomical features.

Two Figures
Barbara Hepworth
One-point linear perspective relies on a single point, or vanishing point, on the viewer's horizon to represent parallel receding lines.

Perspective analysis of Duccio, Annunciation of the Death of the Virgin, from the Maestà Altarpiece.
The piece, despite Duccio's attempt to create a realistic space via intuition, does not succeed in having a single vanishing point.

Leonardo da Vinci's The Last Supper employs convincing perspective.
The vanishing point is located behind Jesus, thus drawing all attention to him.

Leonardo da Vinci, The Last Supper. ca. 1495–98
Two-point linear perspective results in a more dynamic composition.
Gustave Caillebotte's Place de l'Europe on a Rainy Day depicts an intersection of five streets through a series of vanishing points.
The canvas is divided into four equal rectangles formed by the vertical line of the lamppost and the horizon line.

Two-point linear perspective
Gustave Caillebotte's Place de l'Europe on a Rainy Day depicts an intersection of five streets through a series of vanishing points.
The canvas is divided into four equal rectangles formed by the vertical line of the lamppost and the horizon line.

Gustave Caillebotte's
Place de l'Europe on a Rainy Day
The Near and Far
Flattening of the distance between near and far became a lasting trend.
Janine Antoni appears to walk along the horizon in Touch, a video work featuring the artist walking on a tightrope.
The horizon line can never truly be reached, yet it is a place that has been contemplated through culture over time.

Photographs and media with perspective depict space as "real" because it is a monocular, or one-eyed, point of view. However, our actual vision is binocular. We see with both eyes.
Under most conditions, our eyes have the capacity to synthesize these different points of view into a unitary image.
The stereoscope was invented in the nineteenth century to imitate binocular vision.
Two pictures of the same subject, taken from slightly different points of view

Distortions of Space and Foreshortening
Photographer unknown,
Man with Big Shoes.
Drawing to life a perspective such as that in
Dürer's Draftsman Drawing a Female Nude would result in a figure whose lower body would be too large in comparison to her head.

Albrecht Dürer, Draftsman Drawing a Female Nude. 1538
Mantegna's The Dead Christ
applies foreshortening, adjusting the
dimensions of closer extremities to make up for
the distortion created by the point of view.

Japanese prints that flooded European markets after 1853 combined close-up views of nearby objects with views of distant landscapes.
Utagawa Hiroshige's Moon Pine, Ueno contains a large gap between the pine in the foreground and the city behind.
This particular tree was named for its looping round branch.

Venezuelan artist Carlos Cruz-Diez saturated
three gallery chambers in red, green, and blue in his Chromosaturation.

Natural light helps define spatial relationships.
Artists can control the experience of their work through the manipulation of light.

Phillip K. Smith III's work, Lucid Stead, consists of a homesteader's shack transformed by alternating bands of mirror and weathered siding.
At night, LED lights illuminate windows and the cracks between the structure's bands reveal interior light.
The pace of change is the theme at the heart of the work: time and motion.

Lucid Stead.
Phillip K. Smith III

Narrative Arts
When a depiction of a given event implies that we are witnessing a photographic "frozen moment," or an instant of time taken from a larger sequence of events, the single image may be understood as part of a larger narrative sequence
Gianlorenzo Bernini, David. 1623
Michelangelo, David, 1501–04
Traditionally, plastic arts such as painting and sculpture are spatial; written arts such as music and literature are temporal.
We experience a painting or sculpture all at once
We experience a painting or sculpture all at once
Music is linear, having a beginning, middle, and end.
However, time plays a greater role in plastic arts, in part through narrative structure.

Art can also, in and of itself, invite us to experience it in a linear or temporal way.
Isidro Escamilla's Virgin of Guadalupe
narrates the event of Juan Diego beholding a dark-skinned woman who advised him to build a Christian church.

Seeing over Time
Monet's famous lily pond
painting were designed to compel the viewer to move about the room in which they are exhibited.

Illusion of Movement
In optical painting, or "Op Art," physical characteristics of formal elements are manipulated to stimulate the nervous system into thinking it perceives movement.

Bridget Riley's large-canvas Drift No. 2 appears
to wave and roll despite being quite fixed to the canvas.

Symmetrical representations recall Leonardo's Study.
When each side is exactly the same, it is called absolute symmetry.
When there are minor discrepancies but the overall effect is symmetrical, it is called bilateral symmetry.

Leonardo da Vinci
Study of Human Proportion: The Vitruvian Man
Leonardo da Vinci's Study of Human Proportion: The Vitruvian Man embodies all the qualities of design.
Symmetry, proportion, and ratio derive from the perfection of the human figure.
The figure's limbs fit perfectly within their frame.

a palm is four fingers
a foot is four palms
a cubit is six palms
four cubits make a man
a pace is four cubits
a man is 24 palms
The Taj Mahal is one of the most symmetrically balanced buildings in the world.
Each facade is identical with openings that give the building a sense of weightlessness.

Enguerrand Quarton
Coronation of the Virgin.
Enguerrand Quarton's Coronation of the Virgin is a composition featuring small details at its edges with a cruciform shape dominating the whole.
Father and Son flank Mary with near-perfect symmetry.

Frida Kahlo's Las Dos Fridas is symmetrically balanced.
A Frida dressed in native Tehuana costume is connected to the mirrored Frida rejected by Diego Rivera by a vein, which the rejected Frida cuts off with surgical scissors.
Some art historians have suggested that the two figures in the painting are a representation of Frida's dual heritage.
Her father, Guillermo Kahlo, was German; while her mother, Matilde Calderon, was a mix of Spanish and Amerindian.

Frida Kahlo
Las Dos Fridas (The Two Fridas)
A composition that lacks symmetry can still be balanced if sides possess the same visual weight; this is called asymmetry.
While there are only a few ways in which a work can appear balanced, but there are no "laws" about how this can be achieved.

Johannes Vermeer
Woman Holding a Balance
Johannes Vermeer's Woman Holding a Balance contains several references to balance, yet retains asymmetry of subject matter.
The central axis of the composition shows a woman weighing her jewelry with scales; behind her is a painting in which Christ weighs all souls during the Last Judgment.

In radial balance, everything radiates outward from a central point.
The "rose window" above the south portal of Chartres Cathedral is an example.
The Villa La Rotonda by Andrea Palladio also features radial balance.
The central domed rotunda is flanked by four symmetrical reception rooms.

Rose window, south transept, Chartres Cathedral
Andrea Palladio, Villa La Rotonda
Begun 1560s
The focal point of a composition is an area to which the artist draws the viewer's attention the most.
Strong contrasts of light and color can create a focal point easily.

Still Life with Lobster uses complementary colors with the focal lobster in red and everything else in green.
Light in Georges de La Tour's Joseph the Carpenter draws attention away from Joseph and to the brightly lit face of Christ, symbolizing the Divine Light.
It is also possible to make a work that is afocal, or without a single point of focus.

Lucas Samaras's Room No. 2 is an 8-by-8-foot space lined entirely with mirrors.
Only two visitors are allowed inside simultaneously.
Viewer and work become inseparable; the viewer enables the work, yet loses their individuality.

Frank Lloyd Wrigh Fallingwater Pictures
Creative Process
A Multiplication of Focal Points:Diego Velázquez's Las Meninas
An obvious focal point is the infanta Margarita at center, but figures outside of her central group gaze away from the infanta.
Their focal point appears to be the King and Queen, who are reflected in the mirror at the opposite end of the room.

Diego Velázquez
Philip IV, King of Spain
Diego Velázquez
Portrait of Queen Mariana
Diego Velázquez, Las Meninas (The Maids of Honor).
A Multiplication of Focal Points:Diego Velázquez's Las Meninas
Either the royal couple is the actual subject of the painting or they have entered the room to see their daughter being painted; or, in fact, their images are a double portrait rather than themselves reflected in the mirror.
The painting depicts a work-in-progress, although it is unclear what that work is.

Scale describes the dimensions of an art object in relation to the original object or objects around it.
Julie Mehretu's Mural is "large-scale" at 80 feet long and 23 feet high.
When looking at a textbook or screen reproduction, it is important to consider the actual size of the work.

Claude Monet
Autumn on the Seine, Argenteuil
Church of Christ of Chora, Istanbul
11th –12th century
Julie Mehretu
Mural, detail
Comparing Do-Ho Suh's Public Figures and Kara Walker's Subtlety, both artists have manipulated the scale of the object depicted.
Do-Ho Suh's work shows the people carrying the pediment in a diminished scale.
The expected figure atop the pedestal is purposely absent.

Do-Ho Suh
Public Figures
Kara Walker, A Subtlety: The Marvelous Sugar Baby, an Homage to the unpaid and overworked Artisans who have refined our Sweet tastes from the cane fields to the Kitchens of the New World on the Occasion of the demolition of the Domino Sugar Refining Plant.
Walker's work is a large, exaggerated homage to carved sugar centerpieces that would have decorated the tables of the upper classes through history
Artists can manipulate scale through the relative scale of objects.
An object "closer" to us is larger, while one that recesses in to the background appears smaller.

Hokusai's views of Mount Fuji subvert the knowledge of how large the mountain is.
The Great Wave off Kanagawa shows two boats in a tumultuous wave in the foreground, visually diminishing the importance of Fuji in the distance.

A Girl
Ron Mueck
Albert Bierstadt
Emigrants Crossing the Plains
Caspar David Friedrich
Wanderer above the Sea of Fog
Proportion refers to the relationship between parts of an object and the whole.

Ingres's Mme. Rivière appears at first to be natural, but upon closer inspection, her arm has been elongated to accommodate the curve of the frame.
Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres La Grande Odalisque
Madonna and Child with Angels and St. Jerome,
Greek sculptor Polyclitus described "perfect" proportions of the human body in a text called The Canon.
Both the text and the original Doryphoros statue were lost, but both proclaim that each part of the body is a common fraction of the figure's height.
The height of the head ought to be one-eighth and the breadth of the shoulders one-fourth of the total height of the body.
Mathematical harmony
The Greek Parthenon possesses proportions on the facade in a ratio based on the algebraic formula x = 2y + 1.
The ratio of the length of the top step of the platform (or stylobate) to its width is 9:4.

The Parthenon is a good example of standard Classical Greek temple
This style of temple was called Doric.
Columns of no base, a simple cushion capital and a shaft that was fluted or carved from top to bottom .
The architects, Itkinos and Kallikarates, treated it more like a sculpture then a piece of architecture.
The Parthenon had two interior rooms for housing sacred objects.
Religious ceremonies took place outside, so originally the exterior was richly adorned with sculpture and was brightly painted.
Large sculptures of the gods stood in the pediment and near the roof, and a long band of sculpture, which was called a frieze, on the top outside walls of the Parthenon’s two inner chambers.
Jacob Lawrence establishes rhythm in Barber Shop through the repetition of both shape and color.
Each diamond-shaped client wears a different colored apron; the color is repeated again elsewhere in the work
Jacob Lawrence
Barber Shop
Auguste Rodin's The Gates of Hell was based on Dante's Inferno and features nearly 200 figures.
At the top, a grouping of figures called The Three Shades is actually the same figure cast three times and arranged in a semicircle.
Below, the posture of Adam echoes the Shades, implying that it was he who brought us to the Gates of Hell.

Layla Ali's Greenheads series features brown-skinned, gender-neutral "Others" that appear at once alien and familiar.
In this piece, three nearly identical Greenheads have been hanged in front of a fourth victim.
It symbolizes that such a horrifying act can inevitably happen again, though the place could be anywhere.

In Barber Shop, Lawrence kept his figures consistent, yet unique.
If every subject or figure were the same, there would be no need to discuss the unity of diversity that makes a work "complete."
Generally, variety must coexist with unity in order for the work to succeed.

Artist also try to not just find variety but opposition and contradictions.
Louise Lawler's Pollock and Tureen brings seemingly contradictory objects in a state of opposition and tension.
The Pollock painting is transformed into a decorative object that seems as marketable and empty of its original meaning when placed by the tureen.

Repetition can imply monotony, but if certain elements are used repeatedly, they can create a visual rhythm.
Rhythm is a strong, regular, repeated pattern that forms a harmonious sequence or correlation of colors or elements, which usually develops from organizing the space between objects.
This rhythmic flow, which is accomplished by repetition, acts as a unifying device for the composition and is often used to suggest movement.
The repetition might be limited to only an instance or two: not enough to create a pattern or rhythm, but enough to cause a visual echo and reinforce or accent certain aspects of the work.
Bruce Barnbaum
Dance of the Corn Lilies
A flowing rhythm is often most seen in nature .The waves in this picture create a rhythm of movement. The rhythm seems to have the same pattern and texture
Jacob Lawrence
Barber Shop
Shape refers to two-dimensional art
Mass and Volume refers to three-dimensional works
A mass is a solid that occupies three-dimensional volume.
Volume is how much space it takes an object takes
For example, a circle is a shape but a sphere can have mass or volume.
Bernardo Oriental
Jorge Marin

Regular Shapes
circle, square, triangle etc...
Unique, have no definite name
Organic or bio-morphic

Luis Jimenez
“Vaquero” is hollow inside. A woven fiberglass fabric inside the sculpture serves as a matrix to hold the resin. Jiménez once worked with fiberglass as an apprentice in his father’s sign-making shop in El Paso, Texas.
Figure 02-19 That Profile, MARTIN PURYEAR, 1997-1999. Stainless steel, bronze.
540" x 360" x 136".

The sculpture encompasses a large volume but has little mass
made from 1300 boxing speed bags hanging from a cumulative 5 miles of stainless steel cable and 2 miles of aluminum tubing that stands 22 feet high
Michael Kalish

Negative Space
Dreaming of Joy
Ran Hwang
buttons pins stainless steel bars
More Complex illusions of Space
are created through perspective,
a group of methods ofr creating the illusion of depth on a flat picture plane
The installation consists of hundreds of
Chinese scissors suspended from the ceiling, pointing downwards. The hovering, massive cloud of scissors alludes to distant fear, looming violence and worrisome uncertainty. The performer sits beneath the countless sharp blades of the scissors, and performs an on-going simple task of mending.

Beili Liu
The Mending Project
Emma Sulkowicz
Sometimes sculptures often require us to move around them in order to appreciate them fully
Apollo and Daphne
Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini
Black Ghost in Klaipeda, Lithuania
S. Jurkus and S. Plotnikovas and
architects V. Dapkevičius and V. Balsys
Some Sculptures actually move
Paul Gauguin
Christ in the Garden of Olives
George Seurat
A Sunday on La Grande Jatte
Leda and the Swan
Peter Paul Rubens
Rigoberto Gonzalez
Formal Elements
Light and value
Texture and pattern
Shape and Volume

Line Orientation
Implied lines

Line where no continuous mark connects one point to anther but where the connection is nonetheless visually suggested.
So Basically lines don't physically exist.
A line completed by the viewer
Paul Klee, They're Biting, 1920. Draing and oil on paper
Conveys emotional attributes.
It can express range of emotions
The Weeping Woman
Pablo Picasso
Pablo Picasso
The basic units of Visual Arts
Actual Lines
Implied Lines
Outline and Contour
Line Direction
Line Quality

Christina's World
Andrew Wyeth
The Creation of Adam
Actual Lines
They physically or visually exist and can be broad, thin, straight, jagged, etc.
Pablo Picasso
The Kitchen
Blind Contour Drawing
Clive Powsey
- One of the most fundamental elements of nature is line.
- It can be defined as "a dot that moves” or “continuous mark”
- It can describes a shape or outline.
- There are different types of lines

Outline and Contour Line
Lines that define form
An important feature of line is that it indicates the edge of a two dimensional shape or a three dimensional form
Contour Lines
Contour lines also define the outer edges of shapes, however, unlike outlines, contour lines also include interior detail, can vary in thickness and can suggest the volume of a shape.
Shoki Demon Queller
Kitagawa Utamaro
Portrait of Igor Stravinsky
Pablo Picasso
Line Quality
Most viewers react instinctively to the expressive qualities of line, and these expressive qualities are closely associated with their orientation in the composition.
A line's direction can describe spatial relationships in the world
Horizontal lines suggest landscape and the horizon. They impart a sense of peacefulness, vastness, and constancy.

Vertical lines suggest alert attention. They imply strength, power, and authority.
Cathedral of Our Lady of Chartres
Chartres, France 1193--1250

Diagonal lines suggest action and movement. They convey dynamism, vitality, and animation.
Laocoön and his sons
200 BC.
Saul Steinberg
Michael Bell-Smith
Blind on Rips
Georges de La Tour
The Fortune Teller
c 1630
Altarpiece of St. Christopher
Late 13th Century
Travis Trapp
Nara Yashitomo's Country Home,
a line that indicates a shape
Roy Lichtenstein
Crying Girl
Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres
Portrait of Madame Hayard and her Daughter
Honore Daumier
Frightened Woman
Peter Paul Rubens
The Rape/Abduction of the Daughters of Leucippus
Diagonal Lines
George Bellows
Stag at Sharkey's
The Rape of Europa
Vertical Lines
Sagrada Familia
Construction started 1882

A Bisj or Bis Pole
Asmat people of south-western New Guinea.
Burj Khalifa in Dubai
Horizontal Line
Rockwell Ken

Honore Daumier
Frightened Woman
Henri Riviere
Funeral Under Umbrellas
Value Diagram.
A. Achromatic value scale, showing only black, white, and gray tones.
B. Chromatic value scale, showing various values of red. C. Values can create the illusion of volume.
Figure 02-08 Recumbent Female Nude Figure Asleep, ROSSO FIORENTINO,
1530-1540. 5" x 9 1/2".

Most art does not emit or
manipulate light itself, but reflects ambient light, which is the light all around us.
Shading and Modeling
In 2D art artist use value to represent the various levels of light that reflects off objects
Value is one step on a gradation from light and dark
Artist can manipulate gradations in values to create the appearance of natural light n objects. .
Chiaroscuro refers to the balance of light and shade in a work, most often exhibited when the artist transitions from light to dark around a curved surface.

Hatching and Cross-Hatching
Hatching is an area of closely spaced parallel lines.
The Coiffure by Mary Cassatt uses parallel lines to render the depth of shadow in the room.

The Coiffure
Mary Cassatt
Michelangelo's Head of a Satyr employs hatching on the back of the figure's neck and head.
It also features cross-hatching, where one set of hatches is crossed at an angle by one or more sets of hatches, creating a darker area of lines.

Head of a Satyr
Light and Value

Detail of Deesis Mosaic in Hagia Sophia. Believed to be 1185-1204. Mosaic Tile
Tomohiro Inaba
Lion capital of Ashoka ,
250 BCE

Zebra head
Jin Yong Ho
Tactile/Actual Texture
Portrait of Maria Serra Pallavicino
Peter Paul Rubens

Maria Antonia aged 12
Martin van Meytens
Implied Texture
Texture refers to the surface characteristics, and may be tactile or visual.
It can be described as rough or smooth, slimy or soft; it may draw a desire to touch or repulsion.
Tactile (Actual) Texture
physical surface variations
perceived by touch
Visual Texture
Visual texture appears to be actual, but is an illusion.
Sometimes a medium has an inherent texture
Ex. Mosaic
method of creating pictures out of small colored glass or stone pieces, affixed to a surface

Manuel Neri, Mujer Pegada Series No. 2. 1985–86
Michelangelo, Pietà.1501
Michelangelo's Pietà transforms its marble medium into lifelike figures with gentle drapery.

Manuel Neri's bronze sculpture from the Mujer Pegada Series emphasizes both a smooth, finished texture and a rough texture beside loose brushstrokes.

Max Ernst's The Horde was created through frottage, a technique where an artist puts a sheet of paper over textured materials then rubs across the paper with a pencil or crayon.

William A. Garnett produced an aerial view of strip farms across an eroding landscape to study American land-use practices.
Predictable patterns of farming contrast the unfarmed regions, particularly apparent in the upper left of the photo.
The photograph itself is smooth, therefore its texture is visual.

Inherent Texture
Texture is defined as the physical surface quality of an object.
While the use of texture lends visual interest to a design, it can also appeal to our sense of touch and help to more fully describe our visual experience.

Tapestry of the Foundation
Joan Miró, 1979

Two-dimensional textures, while physically flat, may still generate the visual impression of a three-dimensional surface.
This type of texture is known as implied texture.
Implied textures have no actual surface characteristics, but still evoke tactile sensations from the viewer.
We remember what objects feel like when we touch them, and implied textures recall those perceptions.
Implied textures can appear smooth and polished, or bumpy and rough. They can be fine or coarse, uniform or irregular
Meret Oppenheim
Paris, 1936
Pattern refers to the systematic recurrence of a motif, which is repeated and organized over a portion of a design
These repeated elements are psychologically grouped together by the viewer, or even nature, creating the impression of a larger, unified area.

PATTERN. Gary Andrew Clarke, No. 169, 2015.
Branching is an obvious form of patterning in the plant world, but it can also be seen in geological formations such as river deltas and certain crystalline formations.
Spiral patterns can be seen from the scale of galaxies to the opening "fiddlehead" buds of ferns, to the forms of microscopic animals.
Pattern exists in nature as well as in designed objects; it is useful to look at the parallels.
Patterns from Different Cultures
Native American
Patterns in art appear in many art forms around the world, from the detailed geometric Islamic motifs to the symmetrical patterns on woven Najavo blankets to the contemporary art designs.
Every culture has its own distinct set of folk patterns that appear on textiles, architecture, manuscripts, masks, and other objects.

Alhambra, Granda
Oath of the Horatii
Jacques-Louis David
Paul Sérusier
Cliff Walk at Pourville
Claude Monet
Shading and modeling is using value to create a third dimension in a drawing,
Christ at the Column
Adoration of the Shepherds
Gerard van Honthorst's
Pure state of color in the spectrum and the colors name Ex. red, yellow green etc..
without tint or shade

Properties of Color

Primary Colors
Primary Colors
Red, Yellow, Blue
Secondary Color - Mixing the Primary
Orange, Green, Violet
Tertiary Color- Mixing one primary with a Secondary
Blue Green, Red Orange
Analogous Colors
Are next to each other on the color wheel
Opposite of each other
When mixing become dull
The Art of Painting
Johannes Vermeer

very low intensity
cream, tan beige
Intensity or Saturation or Chroma
the brightness, and dullness of a hue
High Intensity
brilliant, vivid, and saturated
Low Intensity
faded, dull
Black and white have value not intensity
Lady with the Wine Glass
Johannes Vermeer
Pat Steir's Pink Chrysanthemum and Night Chrysanthemum feature three views of the same flower in stages of abstraction.
Western culture often associates light with good and darkness with evil.

Pink Chrysanthemum
Pat Steir
Night Chrysanthemum
Pat Steir
On the evening of June 29, 2002, Cai Guo-Qiang's Transient Rainbow was displayed across the East River in New York City.
It was a fireworks display in the colors of the rainbow.
The symbolic message was one of hope, renewal, and healing in a post-9/11 period.

Jane Hammond's Fallen consists of warm yellows, oranges, reds, and the occasional green, exuding warmth.
Each leaf is inscribed with the name of a soldier killed in the Iraq War, a testament to tragedy and healing.

Color is one of the most powerful and complex visual qualities. It defines shape, provides emphasis, and conveys emotion. When used properly, color establishes the overall tone or mood of a design.
Heart Above Fifth
Tim Bavington
In addition to these standard hue names, the sensation of temperature can also be used to describe hue.
Warm hues, such as red, orange, and yellow, are associated with sunlight or fire.
Warm hues generally express an active or assertive quality.
Cool hues, such as green and blue, are associated with plants, ice, and water.
Cool hues are normally considered to be quiet and relaxing
A group of colors that is restricted to a single hue is defined as being monochromatic.
Monochromatic colors are fixed in hue and only have variation in value or saturation.

A group of colors that utilizes multiple but similar hues is considered analogous Color Scheme
Additionally, two colors that exhibit the maximum difference in hue are considered to be complementary
Complementary colors have a strong visual interaction and intensify one another in strength.

In color, value is lightness and darkness within a hue
When adding black to color
Creating a shade
When adding white to color
Creating a tint
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