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Sulfur

A look a the different sulfur sources for fertilization.
by

Craig Dick

on 21 November 2012

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Transcript of Sulfur

Sulfur is key in making protein Sulfur deficiency In Wheat, it is difficult to distinguish sulfur from nitrogen deficiency. Sulfur deficiency is similar to injury caused by aryloxyphenoxypropionate, imidazolinone and sulfonylurea herbicides. S deficiency affects rapidly growing parts, especially reproductive structures.

Mild S deficiency often does not result in noticeable symptoms, but still can reduce yield. Medium deficiencies do not show symptoms until bolting, flowering and podding. Under severe deficiency, symptoms show up about two weeks after germination. Sulfur deficiency symptoms in most crops first appear on younger, upper leaves.
Some visual signs of S deficiency are delayed and prolonged flowering; pale, seed pods will be small and poorly filled. Not all gypsum is the same Larry Stowell, Ph.D., of Paceturf.org:
The bottom line still continues to be that the rate at which anhydrite products solubilize is very slow, so that even more than two weeks after putting the anhydrite products in water, there was still much less soluble calcium available for use in sodium management, as compared to the gypsum products. Anydrite gypsum does not solubilize.
Calcium sulfate dihydrate does. Craig Dick
VP, sales & marketing What makes SuperCal SO4 superior? SuperCal SO4 results No 300# SO4 Broadcast Nutrient Removal Rate 200 bu Corn Ca - 20

S - 16 Grain Stover Ca - 33

S - 14 Ca - 55

S - 30 Total 60 bu Soybean Grain Stover Total Ca - 23

S - 11 Ca - 37

S - 10.2 Ca - 60

S - 21.2 Is a vital component of the photosynthesis process.
Component of amino acids methionine and cysteine which are crucial for protein synthesis.
Important part of chloroplast membranes
Increased Nitrogen Fixation. Shift from low analysis to high analysis fertilizers.
Higher Yielding Crop Varieties.
Reduced Atmospheric S Deposition.
Decreased use of S pesticides.
Declining soil reserves as OM is loss to erosion and tillage practices and crop removal. Mineralized S or humus, crop residue
Elemental Sulfur
S in the form of Sulfate
SuperCal SO4 High Moisture Content (5-15%)
Not Pelletized
Difficult to spread uniformly
Some FGD products contain only CaSO3
Heavy Metals in End Use Product Select a product that has been tested and evaluated across a broad region and by third parties.
Product should be free of heavy metals which may affect your soils for years to come.
Choose a product that is uniform in size and spreads easily through most ag type spreaders. Produced from very high quality gypsum – 95% Calcium Sulfate Dihydrate.
Finely ground for fast action, maximum effectiveness and efficiency
Mixed with a special water-soluble binder, manufactured into fertilizer-sized granules
Dissolves in the soil unless soil S levels are 700 lbs/ a University and Grower tested for years
Dried to less than 1% moisture.
Spreads Uniformly
Tightly screened into two product sizes. When S is deficient, plants tend to accumulate non-protein N, which raises the N/S ratio in the plant. A N/S ratio of 9:1 to 12:1 is especially important in forages that will be used for animal feed, so that the rumen microorganisms can effectively use the N. 

Grasses are more able to utilize sulfate (SO42-) than legumes; grasses will tend to crowd out the legumes in S deficient pastures. Rhizobia need S to fix N.  Many oxidation states
Most of the S in soil is a component of SOM
Biological transformations are important
i.e. mineralization and immobilization
Volatilization is a major loss pathway
Leaching is a major loss pathway Ammonium sulfate (21-0-0-24) -24% S
Potassium sulfate (0-0-50-17) - 17% S
K-Mag (Sul-Po-Mag) (0-0-22-22) - 22% S, 11% Mg
Calcium sulfate (aka gypsum, SO4) - 17% S
Ammonium Thiosulfate* (12-0-0-26) – 26% S
Potassium Thiosulfate* (0-0-25-17)-17% S
Elemental S – 90% S (not sulfate form)
Animal manures (many forms) -0.1-0.3% DM ISA Trials 2009
14 fields applied with treatment (15-40 units Sulfur)
10 fields compared on yield
6/10 had an increase in yield (5-13 bu/A); average 9 bu/A Poor OM, soil humus, and microbial activity (i.e. low or high pH) will decrease the amount of sulfur available to plants.
Crops grown on soils that have < 1.2-1.5 % organic matter often require sulfur fertilization.
 Crops grown on coarse-textured soils are generally more susceptible to sulfur deficiency, due to low organic matter contents and leaching.
Sulfur soil tests generally have not been successful in predicting sulfur fertilization requirements for crops. S Sources Why S? Why now? The Sulfur Cycle ISA On-Farm Network Trials
Over 60 Trials
Results today after 4 pm ???? By Products Not all S is the same
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