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Porn's Perpetuation of Gender Inequality

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Samuel Kirwin

on 9 October 2012

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Transcript of Porn's Perpetuation of Gender Inequality

By: Sam Kirwin, Finda James, Kasia Kazanowski, Meaghan Keeping, Camelia MacDonald Chapter. 7
Gender and Sexuality Nature:
Technology should be considered a means of revealing and controlling.
Technology controls nature. How?
It controls viewers perceptions
Men are granted significant control over means of desire
Portrays a false and unfavorable image of women
Supposedly revealing what is in women's nature
Amateur Porn may be less sexist than traditional role playing porn.
Techno Porn:
Porn now more assessable than ever
Anyone can create a porno
Amateur porn could be a game changer Article: Masculinity, Techno-Porn,
and Nature What?! the internet has made porn more boring.
Reasons: overexposure and repetetive
"The age of the bored eye"
Boredom could put a stop to the perpetuation of masculinity. Article: Sex and Boredom Dichotomy(Male or Female)

Males and females are almost genetically identical (XX or XY)

Every society responds to genetic differences between males and females differently

(Tepperman & Curtis. 2009.) Gender Stereotypes Cont'd Gender Stereotypes ‘Sex’ - characteristics of males and females that go down to genetics and biological factors

‘Gender’ – male and female social and behaviour expectations

“what is a gender stereotype?”

(Tepperman & Curtis. 2009.) G.S. Cont'd Gender identity vary depending on situations and cultures
Sexuality is a part of being human – who we are and what place we take in society
“socially organized” – male and female sexuality
Sexism and homophobia reinforce sexuality in today’s society
(Tepperman & Curtis. 2009.) G.S. Cont'd Asymmetrical dichotomy

Unequal power, opportunities and everyday practices/norms

Differences between men and women are almost always explained using biology

Men = productive purpose
Females = reproductive purpose

(Tepperman & Curtis. 2009.) G.S. Con'd Engles- societies which have no concept of private property = equal ownership of materials and men/women

(Tepperman & Curtis. 2009.) Structural Functionalist Perspective: Suggests that sex is a social exchange instead of merely a biological exchange.
Positive correlation between family and prostitution.
Family an institution of status - limits satisfaction
Prostitution: Enabled women to take care of men
Sexual fantasies aid in satisfaction or dis-satisfaction

(Tepperman & Curtis. 2009.) Two main of pornography are between softcore and hardcore...

Softcore- shows naked or portially clothed men and/or women but exclude sexual activity and sexual intercourse.

Hardcore; shows graphic and sexual acts...sex is usually included By physical characteristi;cs of participant; age, hair, body features, race, subculture etc...
Fetish; bondage (discipline, domination and submission, sadism, masochism)


Reality ; eg; video tapping someone undress

specific sex acts; anal, vaginal etc.. Different Types of Porn Feminism is a way of thinking and acting upon the condition of our lives.
Feminism also focuse on gender and sexual inequality in society
Feminism theory include; liberal feminism, marxist feminism, socialist feminism, radical feminism, anti-racist feminism, psychoanalytic feminism and postmodern feminism

what do they all have in common?

they all see inequalities as socially constructed and profoundly political, they also focuse on the destruction of people based on race, class, gender and sexual domination. Types of Pornography Feminist Theories Maintaining Control? Masculinity and internet pornography

- Steve Garlick believes that people assume that masculinity and porn are interrelated
- Steve Garlick criticizes Jensen’s radical feminist view of pornography on two accounts:
1) if internet has an impact on how we view pornography and how it affects us.
2)Jensen believes that pornographic images/videos allow men to have control of women bodies. Steve however thinks that the control of woman’s body is not the issue but rather the confrontation between men and nature
- (Garlick, 2012) Maintaining Control? Masculinity and Internet Pornography -Pornography began is European societies in the 16th century
- “These texts and images were considered to be a form of social and religious criticism associated with an Enlightenment sensibility that rejected conventional moralities and religious orthodoxies” (Garlick, 2012, p.29).
-Porn was once viewed through a political view, but as it evolved it lost its political view.
-Pornography used to hold empirical truth.
- (Garlick, 2012) Modern Pornography -Friedrich Engles's works consisted of sexuality, power, private property and subordination.
- “every woman belonged equally to every man and every man to every woman”(Engles, as cited in Tepperman & Curtis, 2009, p.169).
- Later private property came into play wealth became a main factor and men had authority over women.
-Through observations those of higher class/status had greater access to sexual capital then individuals of lower class.
- Socio-economic status (ESE) high (ESE) thought about sex more often.
- (Tepperman & Curtis, 2009) Conflict Theory Works Cited Garlick, S. (2012). Maintaining control? Masculinity and internet pornography. In Tepperman, L & Kalyta, A. (Eds.), Reading sociology: Canadian perspectives. (pp. 29-30). Don Mills, ON: Oxford University Press. Intro Pornography as we know it has not always existed; something similar to modern pornography appeared in he 16th century. (Hunt as cited in Garlick, p 29).

Early in the history of photography, it was seen as a way to "offer truthful,empirical knowledge about human bodies" ( Pultz,as cited in Garlick, 2012, p.30). History When photography emerged, there was a greater increase in the emergence of pornography. ( Garlick , 2012). "… Pornography has always manifested a strong desire for sex… explicit photographic images of women from the 1840s onward is available to those who look for it" ( Overden & Mendes as cited in Garlick, 2012, p.30).

Was a means of social and religious criticism rejecting " conventional moralities and religious orothodoxies" (Hunt as cited in Garlick,p. 29). History Contd. 19th century was a crucial period in which modern pornography was being defined " At this time, porn lost its politically subversive qualities and became merely a means of displaying womens' bodies for he purpose of men;'s sexual arousal" ( Hunt as cited in Garlick, 2012.p 29-30). History Contd. Alfred Kinsey challenged the norms of his time in regards to the function of sex

"'biologists and psychologists who have accepted the doctrine that the only natural function of sex is reproduction have simply ignored the existence of sexual activity which is not reproductive'" ( Kinsey et al., as cited in Tepperman & Curtis, 2009. p. 166).

"Sexuality, historically, has been perceived as an innate 'force' that needs to be regulated and successfully manipulated or (re)directed towards acceptable channels" ( Tepperman & Curtis, 2009 p. 166). Social Survey Approach Margaret Mead studied sexual lives of those in different cultures ( Tepperman & Curtis, 2009). She "contributed a body of research that challenges the view that sex and sexuality are biological (fixed, innate) facts" ( Tepperman & Curtis, 2009).

Mead also made note of how variations in culture instead of biology, impact the construction of sex roles, including sexuality (Tepperman & Curtis, 2009). Ethnographic/Anthropological Approach Fun Fact: Retrieved from Merriam- Webster.com
The word pornography is of Greek origin, coming from the word pornographos meaning writing about prostitutes, from porne prostitute + graphein to write akin to Greek pernanai to sell, poros journey. First known usage : 1858 "Pornography", Merriam-Webster.com Retrieved Sept. 26, 2012 http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/pornography) (The Warner Sound, 2012) The Warner Sound.(2012, May, 24). Whistle [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cSnkWzZ7ZAA. Tepperman. L, & Kalyta. A. (2009). Principles of Sociology: Canadian perspectives. Don Mills, ON: Oxford University Press. Discussion Question What is the future of pornography? Do you think it will focus more on men? Will amateur porn end the reign of male dominance in porn? Definition of Pornography: "Material (as books or photograph) that depicts erotic behaviour and is intended to cause sexual excitement" (pornography. (n.d.).In Merriam-Webster. Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/pornography) Jeopardy http://www.superteachertools.com/jeopardy/usergames/Oct201240/game1349310373.php Garlick, S. (2012). Maintaining control? Masculinity and internet pornography. In Tepperman, L & Kalyta, A. (Eds.), Reading sociology: Canadian perspectives. (pp. 31-32). Don Mills, ON: Oxford University Press.

Oh My Sweet TV. 2009, January 31. Friends - Joey and
Chandler with the free porn! Retrieved October 08, 2012. "http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L8y_XELbssc" Interactionist - How people act depends on what they think others think about them. It sounds more complex than it really is.
- Gagnon and Simon "the fathers of the sociological study of sex".
-societal emphasis on sex is a result of the people giving it importance.
-sexual scripts: "road maps for sexual activity"
-Don't believe that our attractions are rooted in biology Interactionist Perspective of internet pornography -Sexual Scripts in Porn: generally the men are in control and the women are submissive
-Categories are popular for a reason, each features something about women that society says men want.
-Men watch porn because society says they should (Garlick, 2012) (Garlick, 2012) (Tepperman & Curtis. 2009.) (Tepperman & Curtis. 2009.)
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