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YWBPR Moldova 240418

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OECD Development Centre

on 25 April 2018

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Transcript of YWBPR Moldova 240418

This project is co-financed by the European Union

Youth Inclusion Project
Objective: Supporting partner countries to better respond to the aspirations of young people and strengthen their involvement in national development processes though evidence-based policies.
Pillars of the project:

Capacity building
Supports the MoYS/MoECR in developing its capacity on monitoring and evaluation.
The project offers possibilities to exchange between national and international stakeholders.
Drafting a review and recommendations on the situations of youth in Moldova.
3 Chapters:

and major challenges
Youth policies and
institutional framework
social norms and health
disparities among youth

The themes were decided together with the former Ministry of Youth and Sports based on discussions with different stakeholders.

The Review benefited from input from national researchers.
Institutional framework
The MoECR should built on MoYS's experiences
Young and dedicated staff
Clear mission
Good relationship with youth CSOs

Institutional instability
Financial constraints
Insufficient staff and training
Lacking regional representation
Not the owner of the Governmental Commission for Youth Policies

Recommendations (1/2)
Strengthen the ministry mandated for youth policy
Ensure institutional stability and formulate a clear institutional vision
Increase the budget and transparency
Implement results-based management
Increase attractiveness of positions in the Youth Department (including capacity building)

Create a co-ordination mechanism
Mainstream youth in all sectoral ministries
Include all relevant line ministries, NGOs, CSOs, donors and youth
Enforce cross-sector co-ordination mechanisms

Make better use of information
Create an information system on youth
Monitor and evaluate youth policies regularly
The Youth Inclusion Project
The Youth Well-Being Policy Review of Moldova


Read more on http://oe.cd/1h0
Key messages
Youth should be a political priority: half of the population is below age 35.

The quality of education needs to improve: Access to education is high, but skills level is low.

The creation of (decent) jobs is a challenge: The NEET rate is high and salaries are low.

Youth Friendly Health Centres & SRH education need to improve: youth feel healthy, but unhealthy habits & gender disparities prevail (SRH, substance).

Civic engagement should be supported: trust in politics and institutions is low.

Youth centres need to improve their outreach: Few youth know the centres and youth workers are poorly paid.

Youth stakeholders need to co-ordinate their work.
Enrolment is high
Enrolment rates in Moldova
Note: Secondary includes both upper and lower secondary education.
Source: UNESCO (2017), UNESCO Institute for Statistics
The quality of education needs to improve
Quality improved since 2009, but gaps with OECD average remain.
Moldova lags the OECD: 2.6 years of schooling in reading, 2.3 in mathematics, 2.2 in science.
More than 40% of students have insufficient basic skills to fully integrate into professional and social life.
Access to employment is limited...
The NEET rate is high, especially in rural areas
Unemployed youth are increasingly well educated, especially female and urban youth

Analyse the decrease in secondary net enrolment
Invest in teachers' education
Revise curricula
Gender stereotypes affect youth's health
Substance use is high
Adolescent births are steady
Perception of gender roles remains traditional
Men: risk taking, strong, income earner
Women: prudent, pretty, studious, responsible for family and household
Opinions favouring gender equality increase with youth's age
Positive self-perception decreases with age for girls, leading to gender gaps

Reasons for substance use do not differ, but young women's substance use is less socially acceptable
Existing double standard concerning sexual behaviours
Source: NBS (2017)
Live births among adolescent women (aged 15-19)
Life satisfaction is relatively high...
Life satisfaction of youth, 2015
Trust in institutions is dangerously low
The high perceived level of corruption deters youth's interest.
Corruption is a major concern for youth (51.3%)
Include youth in policy making processes beyond the MoECR's Youth Department
Improve the transparency and communication of politics
Make volunteering and civic engagement easier and more attractive.
The educational level is high, but gaps exist
Source: Own calculations based on NBS (2014), "Labour Force Survey"
Highest level of education attained (age 25-29), in %
Adolescent boys have a unhealthier lifestyle than girls
Adolescent Moldovan use more substances than the European average
Note: Self-assessed life satisfaction on a scale from 0 to 10.
Source: Gallup (2015)
...and job quality low
Source: Own calculations based on NBS/ILO School-to-Work Transition Surveys 2015.
Informality by level of education, 2014
...aspirations mismatch is high...
Own calculations based on School-to-Work Transition Surveys 2012-2015, ILO.
Aspiration mismatch is high
most young Moldovan work in medium skilled occupations
Qualification matching is comparatively high (66.1%)
Provide early guidance for educational or work transition.
Provide adequate employment services for youth.
Share of youth trusting institutions, 2016
Source: OECD/MoYS/CBS-AXA (2016)
Few youth are interested in politics
Only 25% expressed interest in politics
Interest increases with socio-economic status and level of education
No major gender differences in enrolment
Secondary enrolment slightly decreased
36.2% of young Moldovans suffer deprivations in multiple well-being dimensions
The high Y-MDI is explained by high deprivations in employment and civic participation
Well-being gaps are especially important across area of residence and language group
Youth Multi-dimensional Deprivation Indicator, 2016

(youth aged 15-29, in %)
Source: Own elaboration based on OECD/MoYS/CBS-AXA (2016)
Well-being is a multi-dimensional concept
Youth well-being is composed by different interacting dimensions.
→ Policies need to be co-ordinated to improve youth well-being

Youth Multi-dimensional Deprivation Indicator (Y-MDI)

is unqiue in analysing well-being in an integrated way.
The Y-MDI measures whether the minimum requirements in the different well-being dimensions are satisfied.
Composition of the Y-MDI
Source: OECD (2016)
PISA scores, 2015
PISA proficiency levels, 2015 (in %)
Source: NBS Labour Force Survey
NEET rate youth 14-29
Unemployed youth by educational level, 2014
Source: NBS Labour Force Survey
Youth's wage distribution, 2015
30.7% of youth work informally
Many informally youth have low levels of education
Source: NBS Labour Force Survey.
86.3% of youth earn below the average wage (USD 225)
among female youth it's 93.8%
Youth's level of education improved, also compared to their parents (23.1% are better educated)
Source: OECD/MoYS/CBS-AXA (2016)
Share of youth interested in politics, 2016
Greatest youth concerns, 2016
...and youth look hopeful into the future
Youth perception of current and future standards of living, 2016
Source: OECD/MoYS/CBS-AXA (2016)
The majority sees their living standards unchanged compared to the previous year
Most believe their situation will improve in the coming 5 years
Difference between aspirations and distribution youth workers occupations
Adolescent birth rate decreased little in recent years
Adolescent birth rate is more than twice the EU average (10.9)
Adolescent birth rate is almost three times higher in rural areas (31.9 vs. 12.7)
... but challenges remain
Source: Ministry of Health
Moldova has one of the highest rates of new HIV/AIDS infections
HIV/AIDS incidence among youth is rather stable, but important gender gap remain
...youth mortality declined...
Source: NBS (2016)
Mortality by age group, 2010 and 2016 (per 1 000 youth)
Life expectancy increased but remains below the OECD average (72.2 vs 80)
Women live 8.3 years longer than men (more than in OECD countries 5.8)
Mortality rates declined from 91 to 70.5 per 100 000 youth
Gender gaps in mortality increase with age
Young men are 3.6 times more likely to die from accidents, trauma and intoxication than women (in EU 1.4)

Generally youth feel healthy...
Source: WHO (2016)
Youth reporting fair or poor health (in %)
75% of youth (16-29) consider themselves (very) healthy (lower than the EU average, 92%)
Share of youth reporting poor health increases with age and so does the gender gap
Source: HSBC (2016)
Source: HSBC (2016)
Alcohol consumption of 15-year-olds, 2013/14
Prevalence of smoking among 15-year-olds, 2013/14
Sex education is compulsory since 2012, but not adequately implemented
Peer education can be a powerful tool
Education should also tackle gender norms
Sectoral strategies (Public Health Strategy 2020, National Health Promotion Programme 2020, Tobacco Control 2020, Alcohol Control 2020) could do more to include a gender lense
Laws and policies are not always implemented to the letter
Youth Friendly Health Centres
YFHCs are present in every rayon
Few are aware of the YFHCs or do not use them
YFHC users rate the services positively
YFHC are poorly funded
Include SRH and peer learning in curricula.
The education system has to balance gender roles.
Create and promote healthy models of femininity and masculinity among adolescents and society in general.
YFHCs need mechanisms to advertise their services and identify vulnerable youth with reduced access.
Health services should be adapted to gender-specific needs
Train health and education professionals in youth and gender-sensitive work.
Increase the number of experts in YFHCs.
Source: OECD/MoYS/CBS-AXA (2016)
The institutional framework for youth policies is fragmented
Many state and non-state institutions shape youth policies
Obstacles to co-ordination:
Limited communication channels and platforms
Competition for budget
Insufficient data
Governmental Commission for Youth Policies is a unique opportunity, but it's not operative
Except major strategies, few policies are monitored and evaluated

Local youth services and centres
Few are aware youth centres exist
Fewer make use of the services (4.1%)
Great majority of users is happy with the centres

Youth workers' tasks differ
Qualifications need to be clearly defined and standardised

Source: OECD/MoYS/CBS-AXA (2016)
Youth knowing centres, 2016
Youth workers' wages (in percent), 2016
Recommendations (2/2)
Youth participation
Increase transparency and reporting on civil society's contributions to legislative processes
Institutionalise consultations with CSOs

Professionalise local youth services provision
Establish structures for youth policy implementation at the local level
Harmonise the occupational responsibilities and requirements of youth workers
Increase attractiveness of the youth worker profession
Policies to foster gender equality
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