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World War II
Transcript of World War II
#TodayinHistory - 1945 Battle of Iwo Jima - About 30,000 US Marines land on the island of Iwo Jima
#TodayinHistory - 1942 FDR signs executive order 9066, allowing for the US military to relocate Japanese-Americans to internment camps
#WordoftheDay - satrap [SEY-trap] (noun) a subordinate ruler, often a tyrannical one
Example - Although Emperor Hirohito ruled in Japan, Hideki Tojo was a satrap and ruled with a firm hand Learning Targets
At the end of this lesson you should KNOW AND BE ABLE TO (KABAT):
1. Explain how dictators and militaristic regimes arose in several countries in the 1930s. (Adolf Hitler, Joseph Stalin, Benito Mossolini, and Hideki Tojo)
2. Summarize the actions taken by aggressive regimes in Europe and Asia.
3. Analyze the responses of Britain, France, and the United States to the aggressive regimes.
4. Explain the different political systems present in Europe during World War II (fascism, totalitarianism, communism, Nazism, parliamentary, Constitutional Monarchy, etc.) World War II Timeline 1929 1941 1933 Warm Up Warm Up
List 6 people, places, events, or political systems present during World War II. Agenda World War II "Second Great World War"
1939 - 1945 Agenda
I. Warm Up
II. WWII Pre-Assessment
III. #TodayinHistory #WordoftheDay
IV. Ideologies and Leaders
V. Apocalypse - The Rise of Hitler
VI. Last 5 Oct. 29, 1929
American Stock Market Crashes 1931 1931
Japanese Army Overruns Mainland China (Manchuria) 1935 1937 1938 1939 1940 1933
25% Unemployment in America
FDR's New Deal 1933
Adolf Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany 1935
U.S. Congress bans the sale of arms to countries at war 1935
Italy invades Ethiopia 1937
President Roosevelt condemns aggression in his Quarantine Speech 1938
Germany Annexes Austria
Germany invades Poland, beginning World War II 1940
FDR Wins a third term 1941
Germany invades the Soviet Union December 7,1941
The Japanese attack Pearl Harbor Allies:
The United States*
China Sides in the War Axis:
Japan vs. Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) Moscow Stalingrad Name of Leader: Joseph Stalin
"Stalin" means "man of steel" in Russian
Type of Political System: Communist Dictatorship
USSR fights with the Allied Forces in WWII.
Stalin's "Great Terror" in the 1930s resulted in the death of at least 10 million people.
He turned the USSR into highly centralised command economy, launching a period of industrialization and collectivization that resulted in the rapid transformation of the USSR from an agrarian society into an industrial power.
USSR will become USA's rival in the Cold War. Review:
1917 Russian Revolution
1924 Vladimir Lenin Dies
1924 - 1952 Joseph Stalin is General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union London Great Britain Rome Italy Name of Leader: Benito Mussolini
Type of Political System: Fascist Dictatorship - Totalitarian
In 1919 Mussolini founded the 'Fasci di Combattimento' or 'Fascist Party' in Italy
Followers of Mussolini were known as the "Black Shirts" and fought in the streets with socialists and communists
He called himself 'Il Duce', Italian for 'the leader'.
Mussolini outlawed political parties, took over the press, created a secret police, organized youth groups to indoctrinate the young, and suppressed strikes. Berlin Germany Name of Leader: Adolf Hitler
Type of Political System: Fascist Dictatorship - Totalitarian - Nazism
The Nazi Party was a right-wing political party, it stood for the National Socialist German Workers Party. 'Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei'
Contrary to their name the Nazis opposed Socialism or any 'ism' that promoted class interests or workers; rights over ethnic German solidarity.
'Master Race' - 'Aryan Nation' - 'Final Solution'
In the late 19th Century (1800s) new pseudo-scientific theories about Jews as a race, along with the rise of nationalism, caused Jews to be casted as ethnic outsiders.
While in prison after a failed 'putsch' or 'coup d'etat' Hitler wrote a book, 'Mein Kampf.' In it he criticized political parties, ideologies, communists, and above all all Jews. (Anti-Semitic)
Like Stalin and Mussolini, Hitler was the symbol of his totalitarian regime. He had a secret police, a state-controlled press, a state-controlled education system, , youth organizations to indoctrinate the young.
Hitler's followers were known as the 'Brown Shirts' Tokyo Japan Name of Leaders: Emperor Hirohito
Army General and Prime Minister Hideki Tojo
Type of Political System: Constitutional Monarchy
During the 1930s the Global Economic Depression allowed military leaders like Tojo to assert power over the government.
Military leaders argued that expansion throughout Asia would solve Japan's economic problems and guarantee future security. Island Empire
Hirohito has been characterized by historians as an aloof emperor
In 1931 Japan attacked Manchuria, a region or northeastern China, and established a puppet state.
By 1937 Japan had gained control of China's major railroads and coastal ports.
In the city of Nanjing, Japanese soldiers brutally murdered more than 200,000 residents and burned large portions of the city. This event became known as the 'Rape of Nanjing'
American President Harry S. Truman would order the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki (August 6-9, 1945) Nagasaki Hiroshima Paris France Name of Leader: Charles de Gaulle
Type of Political System: Parliamentary to Semi-Presidential Republic
French general and statesman who led the Free French Forces during World War II.
He later founded the French Fifth Republic in 1958 and served as its first President from 1959 to 1969.
Maginot Line - France's defensive line and fortifications
He escaped to Britain during the Germany Invasion and gave a famous radio address in June 1940, encouraging the French people to resist Nazi Germany
From the very beginning, de Gaulle insisted that France be treated as a great power by the other Allied Powers, despite her initial defeat.
France falls to Hitler in just 35 days. Name of Leader: King George VI
Prime Minister Winston Churchill
Type of Political System: Parliamentary Constitutional Monarchy
According to some historians King George and Churchill developed "the closest personal relationship in modern British history between a monarch and a Prime Minister"
Out of office and politically "in the wilderness" during the 1930s, Churchill took the lead in warning about Nazi Germany and in campaigning for rearmament
Serves as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 - 1945 and again from 1951 - 1955
Churchill was the first person to be made an Honorary Citizen of the United States.
His steadfast refusal to consider defeat, surrender, or a compromise peace helped inspire British resistance, especially during the difficult early days of the War when Britain stood alone in its active opposition to Adolf Hitler. Washington D.C. "We shall go on to the end. We shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be, we shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills, we shall never surrender."
- Winston Churchill, June 4, 1940 Learning Targets 1940
Germany invades France
(Blitzkrieg) 1940 Mexico Canada The United States of America Should the United States Enter World War II? Isolationist Movement
The United States should avoid alliances with other nations
Americans should focus on issues at home, such as the depression
Complete neutrality was the way to keep the United States safe
Intervention in a foreign war would be a mistake, just as World War I was. Interventionist Movement
The United States should work with other nations to promote collective security
Axis aggression is wrong and threatens American interests
The United States should aid the Allied Powers, who were fighting for democracy and freedom
The United States should put pressure on the Axis Powers and prepare for war. Steps Toward American Entry Into WWII Congress passes Neutrality Acts to help prevent the United States from being drawn into any foreign wars 1935 - 1937 Sept.
1940 The Neutrality Act of 1939 allows belligerent nation to buy supplies from the United States on a cash-and-carry basis; the act favors the Allied Powers. Pres. Roosevelt tightens trade embargo against Japan; Congress passes Selective Service Act, instituting a peacetime draft 1939 Congress passes the Lend-Lease Act, allowing the United States to give aid to the Allies. March
1941 Roosevelt and Churchill issue the Atlantic Charter. Aug.
1941 Japanese and American diplomats try to resolve differences Summer
1941 Japan attacks Pearl Harbor; the United States declares war on Japan and later on Germany and Italy. Dec.
1941 German U-boats sink United States Naval ships; US merchant ships are armed and given permissions to sink U-boats. Oct - Nov
1941 Warm Up Agenda How does American respond to the attack on Pearl Harbor and mobilize for WWII? #TodayinHistory 1836 – Samuel Colt is granted a United States patent for the Colt revolver.
#WordoftheDay Learning Targets -
Know And Be Able To (KABAT):
1. Outline how the United States mobilized for war after the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. Agenda
I. Warm Up
II. Declaration of War
IV. American Home Front Graphic Organizer
V. WWII Battles Project Maginot Line Spain Poland Austria Libya Egypt Korea China Manchuria Nanjing Warm Up What do you know about Hitler, Nazism, and the rise of fascism?
What factors aided Hitler in his rise to become the Fuhrer of Germany? #TodayinHistory/#WordoftheDay - Feb. 21
#TodayinHistory - 1965 Malcom X is assassinated in New York City by members of the Nation of Islam
#TodayinHistory - Karl Marx and Fredrich Engels publish the Communist Manifesto
#WordoftheDay - Recant (verb) [ri-KANT] to withdraw or disavow a statement, opinion, etc.
Americans recanted their position of being isolationists after December 7, 1941. List of Agenda (What we need to get done today)
I. Finish Notes on Leaders and Political Systems
II. Watch Hitler Video (45 Minutes)
III. Should American enter the war?
IV. Four Freedoms Speech
V. Terms FDR's Four Freedoms Pearl Harbor Agenda Warm Up Why did Japan choose to attack Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941? I. Warm Up
II. #TodayinHistory | WordoftheDay
III. Pearl Harbor Video
IV. FDR's Declaration of War Speech
V. Work on Terms Pearl Harbor FDR's Declaration of War Speech
December 8, 1941 #TodayinHistory | #WordoftheDay
#TodayinHistory - 1980 Miracle on Ice: In Lake Placid, New York, the United States of America hockey team defeats the Soviet Union 4 - 3. They would go on to win the Gold.
#TodayinHistory - 1942 WWII Pres. FDR orders Gen. Douglass MacArthur out of the Philippines as the Japanese victory becomes inevitable. (Bataan Death March)
#WordoftheDay - jackanapes [JAK-uh-neyps] an impertinent, presumptuous person, especially a young man
Example - Loose lips could lose the war so it was important that American GIs remain professional and not become a bunch of jackanapes. "Arsenal for Democracy" "The Arsenal of Democracy" was a slogan coined by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, in a radio broadcast delivered on December 29, 1940.
Roosevelt promised to help the United Kingdom fight Nazi Germany by giving them military supplies
Germany was allied with Italy and Japan (the Axis powers).
Roosevelt's address was "a call to arm and support" the Allies in Europe, and to a lesser extent China, in their all-out war against Germany and Japan.
"The great arsenal of democracy" came to specifically reference America and its industrial machine, as the primary military supplier for the Allied war effort.
Between 1940 and 1945, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania epitomized the concept by manufacturing more steel for the Allies than any other steel-producing hub in the world--an amount over one-fifth of that made worldwide. Women Women's Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC)
More than 150,000 volunteered for service in the WAAC
They worked as clerical workers, typists, truck drivers , instructors, lab technicians, ship builders, and assembly line workers
Over 6 Million women went to work in the War Industries
Over 57,000 nurses Served in the Army Nurse Corps, which meant constantly putting themselves in danger to care for the wounded soldiers in Europe and the Pacific theaters. Minorities Workers on the Move Korematsu v. United States | 1944 442nd Regimental
Combat Team Office of War Information
(OWI) A U.S. government agency created during World War II to consolidate government information services.
It operated from June 1942 until September 1945.
It coordinated the release of war news for domestic use, and, using posters and radio broadcasts, worked to promote patriotism, warn about foreign spies and recruit women into war work.
The Bureau of Motion Pictures (BMP) was formed under OWI to network with Hollywood. Selective Service Act Victory Gardens | Rationing Asa Philip Randolph "We loyal Negro American citizens demand the right to work and fight for our country."
“Salvation for a race, nation or class must come from within. Freedom is never granted; it is won. Justice is never given; it is exacted.”
- A. Philip Randolph 1889 - 1979 Executive Order 8802
- Assured fair hiring practices
- Established the Fair Employment Practices Committee Ended discriminatory practices in government-funded training, employment, and the armed services. Awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom | 1964 "Double V"
Victory Against Fascism | Victory Against Discrimination Push:
Executive Order 8802
Fair Employment Practices
NAACP Grows Pull:
African-Americans serve in segregated units
Deep South still discriminates
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) founded Bracero Program
The United States partnered with Mexico to operate a program bringing labor from Mexico to work on American farms
These 'braceros' faced discrimination but contributed greatly to the war effort
This program initiated decades of migratory labor in the American Southwest Who's that whisperin' in the trees?
It's two sailors and they're on leave
Pipes and chains and swingin' hands
Who's your daddy, yes I am
Fat cat came to play now he can't run fast enough
You had best stay away when the pushers come to shove
Zoot suit riot, (Riot)
Throw back a bottle of beer
Zoot suit riot (Riot)
Pull a comb through your coal black hair
Zoot suit riot, (Riot)
Throw back a bottle of beer
Zoot suit riot (Riot)
Pull a comb through your coal black hair
A whipped up jitterbuggin' brown eyed man
A stray cat frontin' up an eight-piece band
Cut me Sammy and you'll understand
In my veins hot music ran
You got me in a sway, and I want to swing you done
Now you sailors know, where your women come for love
You're in a Zoot Suit riot
Zoot zy-ow - Zoot za zoo zay
Hey al-oo-ay-en - zay zay zay
Zoot zy-ay-ay ow - Zoot za zoo zay
Ze-zoo-ze-zehoo - day de day
You got me in a sway, and I want to swing you done
Now you sailors know, where your women come for love
You're in a zoot suit riot Zoot Suit Riots
The Zoot Suit Riots were a series of riots in 1943 during World War II that exploded in Los Angeles, California, between white sailors and Marines stationed throughout the city and Latino youths, who were recognizable by the zoot suits they favored.
Cesar Chávez was a zoot suiter when he first became interested in community politics and zoot suiter Malcolm X took part in the Harlem zoot suit riots. Shortly after the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066 Japanese American Internment | Individuals of Japanese ancestry were removed and assigned to designated "military areas." On December 18, 1944, in a 6-3 decision, authored by Justice Black, the Court held that compulsory exclusion, though constitutionally suspect, is justified during circumstances of "emergency and peril". The 442nd is considered to be the most decorated infantry regiment in the history of the United States Army. 442nd Regimental Combat Team A unit composed almost entirely of American soldiers of Japanese descent who volunteered to fight in World War II even though their families were subject to internment. The 442nd was a self-sufficient force, and fought with uncommon distinction in Italy, southern France, and Germany. The Selective Training and Service Act of 1940
The first peacetime conscription in United States history.
This Selective Service Act required that men between the ages of 21 and 35 register with local draft boards.
Later, when the U.S. entered World War II, all men aged 18 to 45 were made subject to military service
All men aged 18 to 65 were required to register. "Use it up, wear it out, make it do, and do without." Households were issued ration books and stamps, which told them how much of certain items, such as sugar or butter, they were allowed to buy. Learning Targets You will be working in groups of 2-3.
One will play the role of RESEARCHER
One will play the role of TEAM LEADER
One will play the role of GRAPHIC DESIGNER
Using a PowerPoint, Prezi, or some other kind of digital or print media your team will be responsible for:
Creating a multi-page visual of your event (Maps, scenes, photos, etc.)
Your project must include the following: (At least 8 slides)
Slide 1 | COVER PAGE (names, roles, and period number)
Slide 2 | THE NAME OF YOUR BATTLE/EVENT?
Slide 3 | THE DATE OF WHEN THE EVENT TOOK PLACE? (beginning/end)
Slide 4 | WHO WERE THE COUNTRIES, DIVISIONS, AND LEADERS INVOLVED?
Slide 5 | WHAT HAPPENED (details, casualties, tactics, and winners/losers)
Slide 6 | THE LOCATION OF WHERE THE BATTLE/EVENT TOOK PLACE?
Slide 7 | AN EXPLANATION AS TO WHY IT HAPPENED – WHAT WAS THE GOAL OR PURPOSE?
Slide 8 | WHY IS SIGNIFICANT TO WORLD WAR II? WWII Battles Project Instructions I. Neutrality Acts
1920s - 1930s Americans Are Isolationists
WWI Was Too Costly
Avoid Foreign Wars
Repealed in 1941 II. 1939 Neutrality Act
Nazis Invade Poland, Czecholslovakia, and France
Ends Arms Embargo
Money for Weapons
Aids the Allied Powers III. Selective Service Act
"The Draft" | The Selective Training and Service Act of 1940
1st Peacetime Draft
Pre-war Ages 21-35 Must Register
US Enters Ages 14-45 Military Service
Ages18-65 Register IV. Lend-Lease Act
UK, USSR, China, and Free France
$50.1 Billion ($650 Billion)
$31.4 to UK
$11.3 to USSR
"Great Arsenal Democracy" V. Atlantic Charter
Free Trade | Lessen Trade Restirctions
Self-Government | Self-Determination
Freedom of the Seas
Freedom from Fear
Freedom from Want Warm Up Agenda How did Americans on the Home Front support the war effort? I. Warm Up
3. #TodayinHistory | #WordoftheDay
4. Finish Home Front Notes
5. Patton Primary Source Feb. 26, 2013
#TodayinHistory | 1935 Adolf Hitler orders the Luftwaffe to be re-formed, violating the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles.
#TodayinHistory | 1919 President Woodrow Wilson signs an act of the U.S. Congress establishing most of the Grand Canyon as a United States National Park (see Grand Canyon National Park).
#WordoftheDay | manifesto (noun) a written statement declaring publicly the intentions, motives, or views of its issuer
When Karl Marx wrote the Communist Manifesto he called for the workers of the world to unite and for society to become a classless utopia. Warm Up If you were President Truman, taking into account the loss of life and utter devastation would you have chosen to drop the Atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki and effectively end WWII? Explain your reasoning Agenda I. The Atomic Bomb
II. Manhattan Project
III. The Mr. Gogan Game Show Review
IV. Review Reader's Notebooks
V. Work Time #TodayinHistory | 1945 American Troops seize the Ludendorff Bridge over the Rhine River at Remagen.
#TodayinHistory | 1876 Alexander Graham Bell is granted a patent for n invention he calls the telephone
#WordoftheDay | panoptic [pan-OP-tik] adjective | permitting the viewing of all parts or elements
Example | Mr. Gogan has tried to provide you with an engaging, informative, and well rounded unit on WWII. His hope was that you would gain a panoptic perspective of WWII. Science and Technology
During World War II Jet Engines Nuclear Energy Calculating Machines Radar Penicillin | Medicine Military Use | detected objects such as bombs, planes, or enemy ships
Civilian Use | used to track weather systems and monitor automobile speeds Military Use | Allowed cryptographers to break enemy codes by detecting letter patterns and frequencies
Civilian Use | Developed into small personal computers and eventually smart phones Military Use | Enabled planes to fly much faster than non-jet-powered planes
Civilian Use | Would be used in commercial airplanes Military Use | Cured soldiers' infected wounds and saved hundreds of thousands of lives
Civilian Use | Used to treat bacterial infections and led to modern day vaccinations Military Use | Responsible for the creation of the Atomic Bomb as well as nuclear energy
Civilian Use | The concept of nuclear fission and nuclear energy is used throughout the world today Manhattan Project The atomic bomb began with an idea. In the 1930s scientists discovered how to split the nuclei of certain elements. This process of nuclear fission released tremendous amounts of energy. Over the next decade, scientists and physicists learned more about the nature of the atom, the effect of a chain reaction, and the military uses of uranium. On June 28, 1941, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt signed Executive Order 8807, which created the Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD). Soon there after the program, code-named the Manhattan Project, was created. The Manhattan Project cost several billion dollars and employed tens of thousands of people. The primary leaders of the projects were General Leslie Groves and physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer. The location of the Manhattan Project was in the small New Mexican town of Los Alamos. On the morning of July 16, 1945, in a barren area outside of Alamogordo, New Mexico, the first atomic bomb was tested. The flash of light could be seen from 180 miles away and the sound was heard at a distance of 100 miles. Recalling what he had seen Oppenheimer thought of an old Hindu poem, "Now I am become Death, the destroyer of Worlds." Complete the questions on page 22 of your RN.
We will discuss Aug 6, 1945 Aug 9, 1945 Hiroshima Nagasaki American airmen dropped 'Little Boy' on the city of Hiroshima on August 6 1945, followed by 'Fat Man' over Nagasaki on August 9. Now Let's Review Readers Notebooks.