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Mobile Learning: Using Technologyin the Language Classroom

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Christina Gitsaki

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Transcript of Mobile Learning: Using Technologyin the Language Classroom

Mobile Learning:
Using Technology in the Language Classroom

Dr. Christina Gitsaki
Assoc. Dean of English, HCT

General Questions
Why Use Technology in the Classroom?
Technology in the Language Learning Classroom
Do you think computer technology should play a central or a peripheral role in language teaching and learning?

Can technology replace teachers in the classroom? What role can it play? What role do teachers play?

Does technology make the teacher’s role more or less difficult?
Overview
Technology Evolution:
Phases in the use of technology in the language classroom
Past, Present and Future directions
Technology Revolution:
Mobile technology in language learning
Critical Issues
Q&A
50 years of the use of computer technology in the language learning classroom.

Technology use has evolved alongside language learning theories and pedagogical approaches.

Before we look at the technology “Revolution” and the creation of a new learning reality, let’s see how technology in the classroom has evolved.
Digital Literacy
“The person who is not technologically literate, in our world, is not a fully educated person”
(Hunter, 1992, p.26).
21st Century Skills
technological literacy
communication skills
access & use information to draw conclusions
make generalizations
become self-directed learners
collaborate and co-operate in teams
(CEO Forum on Education & Technology 2000)
1960's - 1970's
Behaviourist Learning Model
“Drill and Kill”
Computer: the tireless mechanical tutor
Drill practice: easy to program on the computer because of their “systematic and routine character” and “their lack of open-endedness” (Kenning & Kenning, 1990, p.53)
1960's - 1970's
Advantages:
Individualized instruction
Instant feedback
Self-paced learning

Disadvantages:
Passive learner
Absent teacher (peripheral role)

If technology could prove effective, there would be a good reason to replace teachers.
Computer Age: 1980's - 1990's
Communicative Phase
Communicative Language Teaching Approach
Focus on the Use of forms (not only on the forms themselves)
Text-reconstruction, gap filling, speed reading, vocabulary games
Computer Age: 1980's - 1990's
Teachers can author computer programs
Multimedia Software
But:
Technology could not teach communicative competence
Computer programs did not pay attention to individual learner characteristics (Chapelle 1989, pp.7-9)

Technology was used in different ways with different software: hard to reach any conclusions as to its effectiveness for language teaching
Digital Age: 1995-2000
Web-Assisted Language Learning

“Part library, part publishing house, part telephone, part interactive television, the Web represents one of the most diverse and revolutionary media in human history” (Warschauer & Healey, 1998, p.64)

ICT and the Web are “a media today's kids expect to use for expression and communication- it’s a big part of the world into which they were born.”
(Web-Based Education Commission, 2000)
Using the Web for Language Learning
Dynamic, Current, Open-ended
Easy to Use
No Specialized Computer Knowledge is necessary
Fun to use (pictures, sounds, animation, video)
Authentic Material used in real-life situations
Learner-centered activities
Enables students to practice Speaking and Listening which were previously difficult to handle on the computer.
Using the Web for Language Learning
Disadvantages:
The web lacks structure. Cluttered.
Overwhelming amount of information.
Irrelevant and useless material.
Commercialized (lots of ads and flashing commercial info).

Pedagogy:
Not all information is appropriate for EFL learners.
The Web does not provide a framework for the tasks to be completed.
There is no underlying language learning syllabus.
It is up to the teacher to prepare the way for the use of the computer in this circumstance (Levy 1997, p.203).
The Teacher
Facilitator
Provides guidance
Organizes collaborative projects
Researcher (explores the web for resources)
Framer (establishes a frame through which the students can enter the web).
The Learner
Autonomous – Responsible for their work and learning.
Able to direct learning into the areas he/she is interested in.
Creative (able to publish on the web).
Able to communicate directly with the teacher and ask for feedback or advice.
Experimenter and Researcher (Ruchoff, 1992).
Interactive Age: 2000-2005
Social Networking
Cloud Computing
Web 2.0 tools
Wireless
Easy sharing
Online communities
Free access to sophisticated software
Web 2.0
The appearance of social networking tools is changing the way students process information, interact and learn.

Teachers: skeptical about using web 2.0 tools for teaching English
Mobile Learning: 2005 - 2010
Mobile Learning: 2005-2010
Technologies:
PDA’s
Mobile Phones
Tablet laptops

Mobile learning:
Ubiquity (anytime, anywhere learning)
Pervasiveness and ambience

Mobile technology is well-placed to be educationally adaptive.
Mobile-Assisted Language Learning
Vocabulary acquisition
(Levy & Kennedy, 2007 Thornton & Houser, 2005; Song & Fox, 2008)
Grammar practice
(Ally et al., 2007)

Behaviourist mobile learning
:
it's

not meant to be the best learning practice, but rather, it was found to be an effective approach that was well-integrated by the mobile technology.
iPad Revolution: 2010
Adopted as part of school curricula
Portability, mobility, ease of use
Instant access to the web
Over 20,000 educational apps
Over 500 apps for ESL
Learning with iPads
“Given the iPad’s newness, there hasn’t been enough time for empirical studies on its effectiveness to have been conducted”
(Gorichanaz, 2011)
Learning with iPads
Students are positive about learning with iPads (Brand, Kinash, Mathew & Kordyban, 2011)

iPads:
Enhance student interest & creative exploration
Facilitate active learning
Provide easy access to and manipulation of digital content (Morrone, Gosney & Engel, 2012)
Learning with iPads
iPads:
Make lessons more interesting
Encourage exploration of additional topics
Provide functions and tools not possible with a textbook
Help students more effectively manage their time
(Angst & Malinowski, 2010)
Facilitate learning for students with learning disabilities (McClanahan, Williams, Kennedy & Tate, 2012)
iPads in Language Learning
Preliminary research:
Gains in oral language and student engagement in students with special education needs (Cumming & Rodriguez, 2012)

HCT iPad Initiative 2012-2013
Foundations students and teachers
First round of data collection is still in progress
HCT Student Survey
1,802 students
Preliminary results:
The iPad has helped me improve my:
reading (85%)
grammar (82%)
vocabulary (90%)
listening skills (80%)
writing skills (81%)
study skills (80%)
I am more motivated to learn (88%) & attend class (84%)
I do more studying (74%)
I have greater confidence for learning English (84%)
Adoption of iPads
Campus Infrastructure Considerations
Wireless signal and distribution
Strong and reliable connection to the web
Support a large volume of devices connecting at the same time
Classroom Projection facilities (data projector, Apple TV)
Apps purchase and management
Distribution of digital content to students’ iPads
Pedagogical Considerations
The effectiveness of technology for language development is largely dependent upon the pedagogical and language acquisition principles guiding their design (see Chapelle, 2003).

Student-centred, project-based, experiential learning environment
Pedagogical Considerations
Apps usage (find, test, flash?)
eBooks (transition to a paperless classroom, availability of eBooks, interactivity of eBooks, annotation tools)
High-quality and on-going professional development in the use of technology and in determining what and how students learn best with technology tools.
Critical Issues
Evaluating Learning with iPads
Current practices for evaluating the impact of technology in education need broadening as they may not measure the full extent of the impact.

Standardized test scores say little about how to improve technology’s effectiveness.

Formative evaluation tells us what technology applications work, under what conditions, and with which students.

Need to find new ways to identify and measure the skills and knowledge that students gain from using technology.
Critical Issues
Pedagogy:
Avoid Techno-centric Thinking: The focus is on the technology, esp. hardware
Technology-Enhanced vs. Technology-Driven
Decisions about the use of Educational Technology should be prefaced with a consideration of learning theory and the learning environment.
Marriage of sound pedagogy and technological tools.
Gift Wrapping Approach
Technology Integration
Things to Keep in Mind
“Using the iPad in teaching and learning contexts undeniably requires advanced planning and greater time commitments upfront and throughout student explorations”
(Morrone, Gosney & Engel, 2012, p.6)
“One of the most important things kids have today is the love of embracing
change

(John Seely Brown, Deloitte Center)

Teachers also need to embrace change
if we are to
engage
our students and prepare them for the future.
“The central task of education is to implant a will and facility for learning: it should produce
not learned
but
learning people
.

Because in times of change,
learners
inherit the earth, while the
learned
find themselves equipped to deal with a world that no longer exists.”
Eric Hoffer
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