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Gibbons v. Ogden
Transcript of Gibbons v. Ogden
In an opinion written by John Marshall, the Supreme Court overturned Ogden's court case and ruled in favor of Gibbons in 1824. Also, Congress gained authority over the states to regulate any aspect of interstate commerce. However, Gibbons appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court in 1821, saying that he was protected by the terms of a federal license to operate a steamboat. His lawyer was Daniel Webster, who was the leading lawyer of the era. It set the stage for future expansion of congressional power over commercial activity. Due to Congress's newly enforced power, they could overturn any state law regulating interstate commerce. Also, Ogden set the stage for the federal government's growth in power into the 20th century. It was also the first case ever to go to Supreme Court under the Commerce Clause of the U.S. Constitution. The Gibbons vs. Ogden case is still relevant today because without it, Congress would have never gained the authority to regulate trade crossing state lines. The case also added weight to the authority of the federal government over states rights and the ruling was used as a basis for the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (which prohibited discrimination of race, color, religion, or sex). Constitutional Principals Include: The Tenth Amendment The Supremacy Clause The Interstate Commerce Clause Provides that powers not granted
to the federal government by the
Constitution nor prohibited to
the states are observed to the
states by the people. Tenth Amendment: Supremacy Clause: Article VI (Supremacy Clause):
This elevated the authority of the
United States Constitution over
State law. Allowed Congress to control commerce between the states including waterways, superseding New York laws that unfairly restricted out of state competition in steamboat transportation. Interstate Commerce Clause: Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes, duties and excess, to pay the debts and provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United States. All duties, imports and excess shall uniform throughout the United States to regulate commerce with foreign nations and among the several states and Indian tribes. Article 1, Section 8, Clause 3 Cheif Justice,John Marshall ruled for Gibbons, holding that New York's exclusive grant to Ogden violated the Federal Licensing Act of 1793. In reading its decision, the court interpreted the Commerce Clause of the United States Constitution for the first time. John Marshall took action to strengthening the power of the court. He persuaded the judges of Supreme Court to support a single majority opinion in all cases. This made the voice of the Court more authoritative. An act enrolling and licensing ships and vessels
to be employed in the coasting trade and fisheries,
and for regulating the same, which is under the
authority of the Interstate Commerce Clause. Federal Licensing Act of 1793: By Angel Atkinson and Sean Grant