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Gibbons v. Ogden

APUSH
by

Angel Atkinson

on 16 November 2012

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Transcript of Gibbons v. Ogden

Gibbons vs. Ogden "The Emancipation Proclamation of American commerce" Background Info: Effect of the Case: Indicative? In 1824 the case of Gibbons vs. Ogden was read in front of the U.S Supreme Court. It was a case that began in New York between Thomas Gibbons and Aaron Ogden. The case supported article one section eight of the U.S Constitution.This gave Congress the power to regulate interstate and foreign commerce. Ogden bought a license from Livingston granting him access to his exclusive rights to travel by steamboat between New York City and New Jersey. Gibbons resented this power and began running his own boats between New York and New Jersey without the authorization from Fulton or Livingston. The case first started when Robert Fulton and Robert R. Livingston won the exclusive right to operate steamboats in New York Waters. Later they obtained control over some of the major commercial water routes in the United States. Thomas Gibbons and Aaron Ogden had once been partners in the steam ship business. However, there friendship ended as they began a complicated series of legal battles. One of these battles included the supreme court case Gibbons vs. Ogden. VS. Thomas Gibbons Aaron Ogden Ogden decided to sue Gibbons in 1819 and won in 1820 in the New York Court of Chancery. Result:
In an opinion written by John Marshall, the Supreme Court overturned Ogden's court case and ruled in favor of Gibbons in 1824. Also, Congress gained authority over the states to regulate any aspect of interstate commerce. However, Gibbons appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court in 1821, saying that he was protected by the terms of a federal license to operate a steamboat. His lawyer was Daniel Webster, who was the leading lawyer of the era. It set the stage for future expansion of congressional power over commercial activity. Due to Congress's newly enforced power, they could overturn any state law regulating interstate commerce. Also, Ogden set the stage for the federal government's growth in power into the 20th century. It was also the first case ever to go to Supreme Court under the Commerce Clause of the U.S. Constitution. The Gibbons vs. Ogden case is still relevant today because without it, Congress would have never gained the authority to regulate trade crossing state lines. The case also added weight to the authority of the federal government over states rights and the ruling was used as a basis for the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (which prohibited discrimination of race, color, religion, or sex). Constitutional Principals Include: The Tenth Amendment The Supremacy Clause The Interstate Commerce Clause Provides that powers not granted
to the federal government by the
Constitution nor prohibited to
the states are observed to the
states by the people. Tenth Amendment: Supremacy Clause: Article VI (Supremacy Clause):
This elevated the authority of the
United States Constitution over
State law. Allowed Congress to control commerce between the states including waterways, superseding New York laws that unfairly restricted out of state competition in steamboat transportation. Interstate Commerce Clause: Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes, duties and excess, to pay the debts and provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United States. All duties, imports and excess shall uniform throughout the United States to regulate commerce with foreign nations and among the several states and Indian tribes. Article 1, Section 8, Clause 3 Cheif Justice,John Marshall ruled for Gibbons, holding that New York's exclusive grant to Ogden violated the Federal Licensing Act of 1793. In reading its decision, the court interpreted the Commerce Clause of the United States Constitution for the first time. John Marshall took action to strengthening the power of the court. He persuaded the judges of Supreme Court to support a single majority opinion in all cases. This made the voice of the Court more authoritative. An act enrolling and licensing ships and vessels
to be employed in the coasting trade and fisheries,
and for regulating the same, which is under the
authority of the Interstate Commerce Clause. Federal Licensing Act of 1793: By Angel Atkinson and Sean Grant
A.P.U.S.H
Mr.Lawrence
Full transcript