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Copy of Educational Research Methodology

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Guy Maunder Taylor

on 30 June 2015

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Transcript of Copy of Educational Research Methodology

Critical discussion of project impact
Exposition of pedagogical model
National context
Global Citizenship in a Creative Curriculum
Guy Maunder Taylor
ID: 21250821

"No one is born a good citizen; no nation is born a democracy. Rather, both are processes that continue to evolve over a lifetime. Young people must be included from birth. A society that cuts off from its youth severs its lifeline."
-- Kofi Annan
Pedagogical Model
Presentation Summary
Part One: Summary
Final Presentation
Leadership and Innovation MA Course

Methodology and Methods
Executive Summary
Data Collection and Analysis
Part Two: Project Design
Theoretical underpinning
Pedagogical Model
Part Three
Data Collection
Data Analysis
system relevance
Overall Impact and claims
Scaling and leading innovation
Part One: Executive Summary
Project Aims
Project Hypothesis
1. To develop pedagogy amongst class teachers to ensure confident delivery of global citizenship.

2. To develop global skills and encourage debate and evaluation of contested attitudes and outlooks amongst the children.
‘Global citizenship that is driven by enquiry-based, co-designed learning builds and enhances pupil engagement, motivation, augments global skills and encourages evaluation of conflicting attitudes and outlooks, leaving a lasting impact on children.’
Data Collection + Analysis
- Children often find global citizenship learning that is linked with literacy objectives more enjoyable than regular literacy.

▪ - Teachers find a school-wide, skills-based pedagogical model for global citizenship with objectives, success criteria and related pedagogy helpful for the planning and delivery of global citizenship.

▪ - Teacher sometimes feel they are delivering global citizenship purely through content (i.e. curriculum or the ‘what’) rather than also through the skills (the related pedagogy or the ‘how’).

▪ - An explicit global citizenship curriculum and pedagogical model can have system-wide benefits for multiple stakeholders (children, class teachers, senior leadership team, school and governors).
Central issue
Central issue
Can we drive pupil engagement and achievement through global citizenship?

Project Design
Part Two
Theoretical underpinning
Part Two
Project Design
Global Context
UN post-MNGs:
'Sustainable Development Goals'
Pilot Phase (Winter 2013)
Subject specific
- Social justice / charity mentality
- Commonly held didactic approaches
- Research needed on practice and impact
- Active role of citizenship (Davies, 2006)
Part Two
Project Design
Methodology and Methods
- Design thinking (analytic, loosening vs convergent assembly)
- Mode 2 knowledge creation (Hargreaves, 1998)
- Notions of interpretivism
Phase 1 (Spring/summer 2014)
Planning Phase 2 (Winter 2014)
Phase 2 (spring/summer 2015)
- Development education not finite concept, but 'process of learning' (how knowledge is presented, perceived, interpreted, promoted), Bourn 2014.
- Equipping learners to critically engage, to analyse and take responsibility for implications of choices (Andreotti, 2010)
- Change 'in' learners not 'changing' learners; active citizenship is a 'journey'
- Engaging with values systems as they exist now (Temple + Laycock, 2008)
- Top-down enabling approach for bottom-up innovation, fleixble + creative approach to pedagogical model (Link, 2009)
- Soft vs critical global citizenship (Andreotti, 2006), promoting action through political responsibility not moral obligation.
- Critical theory (prioritising transformative agenda above explanatory/observational), 'emancipatory' interest, rejecting neutrality of knowledge (Habermas, 1972)
- Community of scholars
- X-over w/ Interpretivism (socially-constructed; subjective approach; rejecting linear causality)
-Giroux: pedagogy as struggle over assigned meanings, modes of expression, directions of desire (2011); 'critical pedagogy highlighting specificity of particular contexts, students, communities.
- Case Study (Yin) 5 components: questions, propositions, unit(s) of analysis, logic connecting data to propositions and finally the criteria for interpreting the findings
(summary attached to handout)
- Banking concept of education (Paulo Freire), negating processes of inquiry + withholding critical consciousness
Impact, change, innovation
Impact, change, innovation
Impact, change, innovation
- Power over > power within (Smeed et al)
- Stakeholders influence vs interest (Uni. of Bath)
Impact, change, innovation
Larsson (2009)- notion of generalisability.
Summary of methodology
3. Mixed methods
2. Participatory Action Research
1. Critical Theory
1. Rationale for methods: Module 3, Academic Paper, section 3.1

2. Ethical concerns: Module 3, Portfolio, section 2.4

3. Synthesis of instrumentation/impact indicators: Module 3, Portfolio, Section 1.3
Related information
Method Selection
Research instruments
-Qualitative methods-
-Quantitative methods-
- Critical theory

- Mixed Methods

- Participatory Action Research
- Qualitative and quantitative instruments

- Narrative Analysis

- Statistical Analysis

- Analytical Generalisability
Research instruments
Foundation principles
Exposition of pedagogical model
Existing literature
Theoretical basis
Existing pedagogy
- Creative freedom
- Semi-structured guidance
- Skills-based
- Progressive (+ fluid)
- Synthesis of skills and pedagogical strategies
Context-specific characteristics
Part Two
Evaluation of pedagogical model
Related information:
1. Description of pedagogical strategies in more detail, Module 2, Academic Paper, Section 4.
Limitations ( to be tested):
- Assessment

- Knowledge base

- 'Look no further' guide
An approach to learning that:
- Is framed within an understanding of development and global themes;
- Is located within a values base of social justice;
- Promotes critical thinking and reflective thinking;
- Encourages the learner to make connections between their own lives and those of others throughout the world;
- Provides opportunities for the learner to have positive and active engagements in society that contribute to their own perspective of what a better world could look like. (Bourn, 2014)

Data Collection and Analysis
-Qualitative methods-
Part Three
-Quantitative methods-
Informal interviews (teachers)
Informal interviews (chn)
Lesson observations
Survey (chn)
Assessment Tool
Summative questionnaire (teachers)
Iterative Approach
Previous research ( Hunt, 2012, Bourn, 2012, Davies et al, 2006):
- Lack of confidence + skills in knowledge
- 56% (Hunt, 2012) confidence + knowledge (61% highest, focus on core subjects)
Spring 2014
Spring 2015
- Subject knowledge/ framework needed (see narrative analysis indicated above); corroborated by Survey Monkey questionnaire, majority 60% indicated significant hindrance.
- Development of pedagogical model
Staff consultancy date TBC
Related information:
Module 2, Academic Paper
Module 3, Portfolio, Section 3
Iterative process
Limitations- done at the end of the term, end of winter term 2014.
AIM: Need to diagnose chn 'engagement'
Spring 2015
Related information:
Module 5, Academic Paper, Section 3 (published July 2015)
Level of seniority (foundation co-ordinator)
Familiarity amongst staff of PM
- Field notes
- Based on Leuven engagement scale + personal observations
- 3 x lessons (Y1, Y3 and Y6)
- Limited opportunities for observing (out of class time / number of observations per term)
Inconclusive evidence chn enjoy GC pedagogical activities more than 'regular' activities.
- Tailor engagement scale
- Negotiate observations / out of class time
- Repeat over wide spread of chn (+ wide spread of planned GC activities)
Iterative process
AIM: engagement of chn.
Winter 2014
Related information
Module 4, Research Paper, section 3.2
Pilot survey, 5 Brazil class, Winter 2013
Global citizenship weeks are more popular than 'regular' weeks
Global Citizenship weeks can be divisive.
- Summative
- Not user-friendly (younger chn)
- Requires triangulation
- Summative
- Score out of 5, week by week
- Administered by class teachers
GLP Target framework
- Weekly, administered by teachers
- Diagnosing reasons for preference
Iterative process
Summer 2015
Related information:
Module 5, Academic Paper, Section 3
GLP focus groups
Aim: Diagnosing progress (knowledge, attitudinal)
- Purpose/design disconnect
- Length
- Complexity
- Administered by researcher
- iPads
- Individual exercise
- 25-40 minutes to complete
- Baseline evidence
- Tailor to our needs
- Post staff consultancy, add in knowledge content
- Shorten, Survey Monkey (alternate, assisted delivery for younger chn)
Qualitative Analysis
15 registered chn, 4 inadmissible (BETA)
Average score: 59.2%
Average score former 5 Brazil: 71%
Average score former 5 Germany: 57%
Test thresholds
0-45: early
46-76: developing
77-100: secure
YEAR 6 GERMANY (current)
17 registered chn, 4 inadmissible (BETA)
Average score: 66.5%
YEAR 6 BRAZIL (current)
16 registered chn, 3 inadmissible (BETA)
Average score: 51%
Summer 2015
Related information:
Module 5, Academic Paper, Section 3
- Triangulate and broaden data from informal interviews
- Track progress of pedagogical model
- Sound out ideas ahead of consultancy
- Survey Monkey (iPads) + paper copy
- Quantitative analysis (statistical)
"It's like...economic, social, choices... so we have to read out the questions..and put the colour on that is economic or social"
- Recalled new pedagogical strategy (image based, enquiry/evaluating activity)
- Mentioned discussing learning with relatives
- Excited to discuss granola-making
Year 3
Year 4
- Discussed visit to shops in depth
- Recalled Fairtrade products and were able to compare supermarkets and products
Child A: We watched things on the board and then answered questions...
Q: Do you still think you learned something?
Chn (All): Yes
spring 2015
Related information:
Module 5, Academic Paper, Section 3
'It's good to try something different sometimes'
Fairtrade Achiever Award
First GLP Expert Centre in Southwark
Part Three
Onus resides with audience rather than researcher
Ensuring consensus of characteristics of contexts
(source context:wider contexts)
Task of researcher:
provision of 'thick descriptions' for audience (wider contexts) to make informed decision
Larsson (2009)
(3rd line of reasoning on generalisation: through context similarity)
synthesis of pedagogical strategies, learning goals, broad areas (skills) agreed to fall under Global Citizenship
Project output:
Contribution to theory:
- Initial findings on link between engagement and GC in Literacy (content / pedagogy diagnosis necessary).
- Achievement / GC link as yet unsubstantiated.
-See handout-
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