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CGHS Biology - Modern Genetics

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Sean Holder

on 24 February 2015

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Transcript of CGHS Biology - Modern Genetics

Next we have to switch from DNA to RNA
...but DNA is too big to leave the nucleus
Knowledge Check
Adenine - Thymine
Cytosine - Guanine
DNA vs RNA
Major Structural Differences
From DNA to Protein
Translation is the process of turning mRNA into protein
Translate from one “language” (mRNA nucleotides) to a second “language” (amino acids)
Genetic code – nucleotide sequence that is translated to amino acids of the protein

Central Dogma of Biology
DNA is the genetic instruction or gene
DNA to RNA is called
Transcription
RNA to Protein is called
Translation
Modern Genetics - From DNA to How You Look...
RNA Structure
RNA differs from DNA
Ribose is the sugar rather than deoxyribose
Uracil instead of Thymine
A, G and C the same
Single stranded
Similarities and Differences
Similarities
Open and unwind a portion of the DNA
1 strand of the DNA acts as a template
Complementary base-pairing with DNA
DNA the Background
Kicking it back to the Cell Cycle
DNA Makes a Copy of Itself
Guiding Questions
What is DNA?
How does it control what we look like?
What is the Central Dogma of Biology?
Discovering the Structure
Who cares about...DNA?!?
Watson and Crick are credited with "discovery" the structure of DNA
Rosalind Franklin research crystallography, which was "stolen" by Watson and Crick
Wait...what?!?
In English...
Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid
Called DNA
Includes a phosphate group,a nitrogenous base, and a sugar
Deoxyribose is sugar
Nitrogenous bases:
Adenine-Thymine
Cytosine-Guanine

Ribonucleic

Acid
Called RNA
Has ribose as sugar
Nitrogenous base pairs Adenine - Uracil Cytosine - Guanine
Single stranded

The process of making more DNA (DNA replication) requires the use of RNA and enzymes
Helicase unwinds the double helix of DNA strand
RNA primers (base pairs A-U, C-G) begin to match up with the strands
DNA polymerase combines with the strand to match up the base pairs (A-T, C-G)
Two identical strands are formed
Occurs in the nucleus of the cell

messenger RNA (mRNA) – codes for proteins
ribosomal RNA (rRNA) – makes proteins
transfer RNA (tRNA) – carries the amino acid
Differences
RNA strand does not stay paired with DNA
DNA re-coils and RNA is single stranded
RNA is shorter than DNA
Adenine - Uracil
Cytosine - Guanine
DNA Replication
CGA-CAT-GAG-ATC
DNA Transcription
CGA-CAT-GAG-ATC
GCT-GTA-CTC-TAG
GCU-CUA-CUC-UAG
Nucleotides read 3 at a time meaning that there are 64 combinations for a codon (set of 3 nucleotides)
Only 20 amino acids
More than 1 codon per AA – degenerate code with the exception of Met and Trp (least abundant AAs in proteins)
Full transcript