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stephanie holden

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Transcript of Immunology

Third Line of Defense

Amanda Moors and Stephanie Holden

What is Immunology?
Immunology is the study of host defense mechanisms
Non-specific Immune System
It is the protection that is inherited at birth to fight off infection. It is not dependent on previous contact with an infectious agent.
Second Line of Defense


The Immune System

Is specialized to defend the body against
such as toxins, bacterial proteins, or foreign blood cells.
What does the immune system include?
This system includes
such as
neutrophils, monocytes,
which are phagocytes found in tissues throughout the body.
Lymphoid Organs

In addition,
lymphoid organs
, such as lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus gland, produce
Body's 1st line of Defense
External barriers of the body, like the skin and mucous membranes (like those that line the nose throat and gastrointestinal tract), which are the first line of defense in preventing disease from entering the body
What if this first line is defeated?
If the outer defense wall is broken, as through a cut, the skin attempts to heal the break quickly and the special immune cells on the skin attack invading germs.
You make me SICK!!

The immune centers of your body is located:
The "bad guys" are also called antigens
Phagocytes engulf pathogens
Cell mediated is a type of immunity produced by T- Cells
Lymphocytes also destroy cells which have been infected by a virus
Acquired Immunity is then created after exposure to the bad guys.
Lymphocytes attack antigens
Review/Conclusion in 1 minute
The first line of defense is Natural, "innate" immunity, Also external barriers & mucous membranes
The Body's Three Lines Of Defense

First line
- Physical barriers

Second Line
- Eater cells

Third Line-
Smart Cells
Intact skin provides a protective barrier that cannot normally be penetrated by bacteria and viruses.
The skin also produces acidic secretions that maintain a pH of 3-5 to inhibit growth of microbes
Lysozome, an antimicrobial enzyme secreted in human tears, saliva, mucous secretions, and perspiration, destroys the cells of walls of bacteria, killing them.
This line of defense can be mobilized if the invader takes up residence
Cells of Innate Immunity

White Blood cells that engulf invading microbes and produce antibodies
They contain a nucleus, the shape and size to identify the type of white blood cell.

Cytoplasmic granules are
produced in bone marrow

1, Basophils
2. Eoinophils
3. Neutrophils
Also produced in the bone marrow, but modified in the lymph nodes
1. Lymphocytes
2. Monoctyes
3. Macrophages
So what happens when a foreign particle penetrates and enters the body?
Phagocytic white blood cells
Antimicrobial protiens
Inflammatory response
Once particle enters....
Special leukocytes, called monocytes, migrate from the blood into the tissues where they develop into macrophages, which use phagocytosis to injest any invading microbes
Other white blood cells that are attracted to chemical signals given off by cells that have been damaged by the microbes

They leave the blood via capillaries and migrate toward the infected tissues

They engulf the microbe and release and enzyme that digests itself along with the microbe
Natural Killer Cells
The Third Line of defense includes:
This Immunity has memory
It includes specific host defenses that must be developed uniquely for each microbe through the action of specialized white blood cells. This immunity has long term memory.
Is a part of the adaptive immune system. This line of defense provides specific, long-term protection against microbes.
Obtained in the course of daily life
Naturally Acquired
Antigens or pathogens enter the body naturally

Body generates an immune response to antigens

Immunity may be temporary or lifelong
Antibodies pass from mother to fetus via breastfeeding or placenta

No immune response to anitgens

Immunity is short-lived
Artificially Acquired
Obtained by receiving a vaccine or immune serum
Antigens are introduced as vaccines

Body generates an immune response to antigens

Immunity can be lifelong or temporary
Preformed antibodies are introduced to the body by injection (such as antiserum)

Immunity is short-lived
B-cells-Antibody-mediated (humoral) immunity
T-cells- Cell-mediated Immunity

Both of these only recognize specific pathogens
B-cells work by producing, transporting, and secreting antibodies. Upon meeting a pathogen, B-calls begin dividing into plasma cells and releasing antibodies which seek and destroy pathogens
T-helper Cells
Each B-cell makes one specific antibody for one specific pathogen. If a B-cell meets another pathogen, nothing can be done.

One type of T-cell, a helper T-cell, must be involved for a B-cell to destroy a pathogen
Cell Mediated Immunity
T-cells can help B-cells and other T-cells, or directly attack pathogens

When they directly attack they are called cytotoxic T-cells

Another important is the natural
killer cell
Memory T-cells
Memory T-cells remember each encounter with a specific pathogen and translate how it was killed the 1st time so the 2nd encounter will be quick and easy
Suppressor T-cells
Act as the referee in the battle. When the immune system has won a battle, the suppressor T cells call off the troops.

Each antibody has at least two identical sites that bind antigen
They belong to a group of serum proteins called immunoglobulins
5 classes of Immunoglobulins

Full transcript