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Literacy and PARCC

What must students and teachers do in order for students to succeed?

Tabitha Dillard

on 5 August 2014

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Transcript of Literacy and PARCC

According to the MDE, ALL teachers are responsible for teaching reading and writing. Students must read multiple types of informational texts, such as

nonfiction stories
personal essays and essays about art or literature
speeches and journals
opinion pieces
historical, scientific, technical, or economic accounts (including digital sources) written for a broad audience
(Taken from PARCC Model Content Frameworks)

All of the Informational texts on the PARCC Assessment will come from History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects. Students must identify the central idea of these texts and discuss claims and counterclaims.

Literacy and PARCC
Teach Vocabulary
Tier I--Words of everyday speech

Tier II--General Academic Words

Tier III--Domain-Specific Words-these are words we teach in our classrooms (science words in science or math terms in math)

Strategies for Teaching Vocabulary
Grade 7 Vocabulary Item
Part A
As it is used in the passage, what does the word solution mean?
A. an ability to combine smaller parts
B. an answer to a problem
C. a capacity to carry a stronger charge
D. a liquid mixture

Part B
Which detail from “Conducting Solutions” provides the best clue to the meaning of the word solution?
A. “…conducts electricity…”
B. “…dissolved in water…”
C. “…are no ions…”
D. “…made of molecules…”
Grade 10 Vocabulary Sample
Part A
What does the phrase uncertain lines of light in paragraph 2 imply?
A. The lines made by the fireflies are difficult to trace.
B. The lines made by the fireflies are a trick played upon the eye.
C. The lines made by the fireflies are seen only from certain angles.
D. The lines made by the fireflies are a source of frustration.

Part B
Select another expression from the options in paragraph 2 that further develops the idea of uncertain lines of light.
Sample Questions from the PARCC Assessment
Part A
What does cross mean as it is used in paragraph 28 of “Johnny Chuck Finds the Best Thing in the World”?
A. excited
B. lost
C. upset
D. scared

Part B
Which statement best supports the answer to Part A?
A. "...ran this way and ran that way..."
B. "...hadn't found the Best Thing in the World."
C. "...they started up the Lone Little Path..."
D. "They didn't hurry now.
Memorizing Tier III words is important for students to do well in the class, but memorizing the definition of Tier II words is not as important as figuring out the meaning based on context clues and "chunking," which involves studying word parts, such as prefixes, suffixes, and root words.

ELA Teachers-Determine the meaning of words as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings and analyze the impact on meaning and tone.

History/Social Studies Teachers-Determine the meaning of words as they are used to describe political, social, or economic aspects of history/social science.

Science Teachers-Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and domain-specific words as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context.
Choose Tier II Vocabulary that...

Comes from your text

Appears in ALL types of text, such as textbooks, newspapers, magazines, how-to manuals, etc.

Has multiple meanings and functions as different parts of speech (e.g. "function" can be a noun, a verb, etc. and can be found in math, chemistry, and general texts.)

Students can receive partial credit if they answer only Part B incorrectly, but if students miss Part A, they will receive no credit regardless.
Third Grade Vocabulary Sample
Literacy refers to reading, writing, speaking, and listening. So, what should we ALL do to improve the literacy of our students?
Reading and the PARCC Assessment
What must students be able to do on the PARCC Assessment?
Students must identify the central idea in both literary and informational texts. This is one of the most important skills. Requiring Close Reading of the Text will help students identify this.
Students must feel comfortable reading text outside of the United States, which is text written by an author born in another country who still lives in another country. Students should focus on the character's point of view and cultural experiences.
Analyze Seminal and Foundational U.S. documents
Seminal Documents--U.S. documents of
historical and literary significance that are pivotal, ground-breaking, and have lasting influence. These documents cause change to occur. Examples--Washington's Farewell Address, the Gettysburg Address, etc.

Foundational Documents--Texts that articulate the principles of liberty and equality and exhort us to live up to those principles throughout the nation's history--These documents uphold the changes that have occurred. Ex--Declaration
of Independence, Preamble to the
Constitution, etc.
Comprehend Supreme Court Cases
Students must be able to read and understand portions of the majority opinion and dissenting opinion from Supreme Court cases. Students will use the opposing opinions in an argumentative essay, and/or students will have a list of counterarguments made by the dissenting minority and they must identify which two of them were made in response to two majority opinions,
which will also be listed.
streetlaw.org and PBS.org
are good sources.
Read an image
Yes, I said "read" an image. PARCC considers images, videos, and audio recordings as text. Students will see/hear these on the PARCC Assessment. When "reading" an image, students should--1) Study the photo for a few minutes. 2) Form an overall impression of the photo and examine the individual items.
3) Divide the photo into quadrants and study each section. Then, the teacher should
provide questions for students to
use to analyze the photo.
Read World Literature
Identify Central or Main Idea
But what is the most important thing students must be able to do...but most cannot??
They must support their claims with EVIDENCE from the MULTIPLE texts they read. Students must be able to back up every answer they provide.
Part A
Which sentence summarizes the speaker’s thoughts in “Life Doesn’t Frighten Me”?
A. Some challenges are much more difficult...
B. Dreams can be helpful when solving...
C. Confidence is the best weapon against fear.
D. Being alone is the scariest place to be.

Part B
Which lines from the poem show evidence of the answer to Part A?
A. lines 1–2 B. lines 13–14
C. lines 19–20 D. lines 35-36
6th Grade Sample Item
The author makes the claim that steps have been taken to help endangered tigers. First, drag and drop into the chart one main strategy used throughout the article to develop the claim. Then, drag and drop three pieces of evidence that demonstrate the strategy being used.

9th Grade Sample Item
Part A
What is Mr. Skimpole trying to do when he questions the stranger at the end of the passage
A. shame him B. amuse him C. reassure him

Part B
Which phrase provides the best evidence for the answer to Part A?
A. “‘. . . you were coming out . . .’” (par 35)
B. “‘. . . what did you think . . .’” (par 41)

4th Grade ELA Sample Item
Writing and the PARCC Assessment
Students will write a Narrative, Opinion or Argumentative Essay, and Expository/Informative Essay (ESSAY--not just a few sentences or a paragraph) and complete a Research Simulation. Sometimes students are asked to write other forms of text (see handout), but 90% of the time students will be asked to write an essay and narrative story.

Students will not write on random topics. All topics will be generated from the texts students read on the assessment.

Students will be timed, so teachers should require on-demand, timed writings in the classroom.

Student's writing will be graded for their reading comprehension. Does the writing show that students understand what they read? To do this, students need to quote and pull facts from the texts.
Students must use facts from the
text to support their ideas. None of the evidence must come from the student's brain. When asked how they know, students should point to something in the text that proves their answer. They shouldn't say, "Just because I know" or "One time my family experienced this..."
What Can You Do to Help?
Allow Students to Discuss.
Require Students to Write.
Require Students to Watch and Listen.
Require Students to Read.
Require PowerPoints/Prezi Presentations
Give students a baseball card. Require a 3-4 sentence summary on the quality of the player.
Allow Students to use Technology to Research for Assignments and to Create Assignments.
Require students to answer end of unit questions.

Have students write a paragraph, an essay, a research paper, a story on a topic.
Require students to summarize and paraphrase. Limiting how much they write teaches conciseness. Require a 5 word summary--they must choose the best 5 words to sum up the text.
Hold Socratic Seminars
When you come across differences of opinions, have students take a side--let them argue it (one-on-one or in groups) using evidence. Whoever has the best "case" wins something??
Primary Text--Photos, Diaries, Journals, Interviews, etc.
Students must read diagrams, flowcharts, charts, graphs, maps, symbols on maps,
Graph the results of a science experiment. Take the information from graphs and write what it shows into words.
Teach students to be THIEVES--Title, Headings, Introductions, Every 1st Sentence, Visuals/Vocabulary, End of Ch. Questions, Summarize
Write a
narrative concerning your science fair project/lab reports.
Allow students to watch a video/movie and compare/contrast to a text, discuss the theme and central idea, make a claim and have students argue it using facts from the movie.
Have students read every day and you read to them as well.
Students have to be taught how to read specific types of texts. Who better to teach students how to correctly read historical and scientific texts, charts/ graphs and maps than the experts in those areas?
Staircase of Complexity
It's very important for ELA teachers to follow the staircase of complexity in order to prevent doubling the load of other teachers the upcoming year. Also, teachers must increase text complexity each year.
Allow Group work
Require students to give speeches
All information for this Prezi presentation was obtained from the Mississippi Department of Education, the PARCC website, and/or the ELA Common Core State Standards.
Allow students to Debate.
Have a Mock Trial.
Help students learn to type, drag and drop, use the space bar and tab key.
Computer teachers--allow students to take practice PARCC assessments online just to practice how to properly use the computer.
Play audio recordings that go along with your lesson.
Close Reading
Close reading requires students to become fully enveloped in the story. Some strategies for students to use include the following:

Read the same text several times, but look for something different each time.

Text Code--While reading, use symbols to text code information that may be confusing or enlightening, etc. (see handout)

Read various sections of text. Underline/Highlight words (only 3-4 words per section) and explain in margin why those words were chosen. Discuss.

Use Post-its to "flag" important phrases or passages.

Use Post-its at the beginning of each section and have students create their own headings for the text.

Highlight the top 5 most important things in the entire text. Share top 5 with a classmate. Decide on the top 5 as a group/class.
3-2-1 Video
Exit Slips
Teach students to Close Read
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