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Form Meaning Use

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Neil Finney

on 16 January 2014

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Transcript of Form Meaning Use

Form, Meaning, and Use (and Pronunciation)
I have a good friend called Simon who went to
teach English in Australia. He had never
been there before, and on the plane there, he met
a young woman called Emilia from Australia and fell in love. Unfortunately, he was teaching English in Sydney, and she lived hundreds of miles away in the countryside, in Bourke, North West of Sydney.

After he had been teaching for a few weeks, there
was a national holiday for three days, and he
decided to borrow the school car and drive to Bourke
to visit her. He had not managed to contact her,
but knew her address and set off on the eve of
the holiday, full of hope.
For this kind of journey, you (people) should.....
Simon, however, didn’t plan his trip, he didn’t
pack anything, he just set off in the school car.

Was that wise?

Anyway, he set off, alone. He drove all day.

Then what do you think happened?

What do you think of Simon?

He should have.....


should've - /ʃʊdəv/

In fast, casual speech,
is often "simplified" so that it sounds something like "
." This form is common in speaking, but it is not appropriate for
most written work.


The modal auxiliary
has a past form,
should have
, which is used before the past participle of a verb. When this past form is used, should and have are very often contracted to

should have been / should've been

This past form may also be negative (should not have + the past participle); the full negative with not is also contracted to
shouldn't have
( + past participle) very often:

should not have been / shouldn't have been

This is an example of using a story to PRESENT a grammar point (the modal verbs
should have
shouldn’t have
with the meaning of past obligation).

Later in the day.....

The school told the police that their car had been stolen.

The school told the police that Simon was

.......So the police set out to find him.

What do you think the police officer said to him when he eventually found him?

Police: You shouldn’t have taken the school car.
Simon: I know I shouldn’t have. I didn’t think.

Police: You should’ve taken some water with you.
Simon: I know I should’ve. I didn’t think.

Police: You should have taken a map.
Simon: I know I should have. I didn’t think

Lesson Plan

Intro: Shall I tell you a story?
Compare this to ‘Today I will tell you the rules for the use of modal auxiliary verbs with perfect infinitives?’
Or ‘Today we will learn to use should have?’ – Most people like to hear a story, so are ready to listen (and learn). They sit back in a receptive mood.

Step 1: Establish the context:
Learners can use the context to help them understand the meaning. Encourage learners to fill in some details. This makes it more memorable.

Step 2: Introduce the problem:
Learners focus on meaning.

Step 3: Try and elicit the target language:
Here learners should be searching for the words they need to express their meaning – create a desire to learn the grammar point.

Step 4: Present the target language:
Focus on form

Step 5: Present the target language in a dialogue:
Practice using target language. (For example create a dialogue between girlfriend and boyfriend)

The words, functional expressions, grammar structures we choose to use are determined by the situation we are in and/or what we want to communicate to our listener(s).

'Use' is interconnected with meaning.

Obligation:something by which a person is bound or obliged to do certain things, and which arises out of a sense of duty or results from custom, law, etc.

The situational use for '
should have/shouldn't have
' is the police are telling Simon about his conscience/sense of right and wrong.

For example:

Please note: Mail will not be delivered on Thursdays until further notice.

The passive voice is used appropriately here because it is more formal and objective; because listeners know generally that postmen deliver the mail and that this decision was made by a nameless government or postal official


The general situation the word is used in.

This could mean something as simple as using divorce to talk about married people not bfs and gfs.

With food adjectives students need to know which food a word can describe. Tender ice cream? Not likely. Tender steak? Absolutely.

Nuances that are connected to meaning that change the feeling of the word, for example, vomit and puke (formal like a word a doctor would use vs. very informal and just plain gross sounding).
- The individual sounds (IPA)
- The stress of each syllable (Lion, Italy)
- The blended sounds in the chunk

- Two consonants - Na
- One consonant between two vowels - Pa
er, Ti

What is word stress?

Take 3 words: photograph, photographer and photographic. Do they sound the same when spoken? No. Because ONE syllable in each word is STRESSED (stronger than the others).

Stress on Verbs and Nouns

She won an Olympic
. (noun)
ing her new song in the studios. (verb)
However, the pronunciation (i.e. syllable stress) is different. Where "record" is used as a noun, the stress is on the first syllable: RE-cord (where "re" is the same sound as the "re" in "relative").
But when "record" is used as a verb, the stress is on the second syllable: re-CORD, and the "re" sounds like "ri", as in "remember".)

present, conduct, decrease, export, import, increase, insult, permit, progress, protest, record, suspect, transfer, transport, upset
Noun: DEcrease "We've seen a decrease in the bird population."
Verb: deCREASE "Numbers are decreasing every year."
Noun: IMport "This is a cheap import."
Verb: imPORT "They import their oil from the UK."
Noun: DIScount "Is there a discount on this?"
Verb: disCOUNT "They discounted the theories."
Crazy English

When the stars are out, they are visible, but when the lights are out, they are invisible. And why, when I wind up my watch, I start it, but when I wind up this essay, I end it?

Crazy English

How can a slim chance and a fat chance be the same, while a wise man and a wise guy are opposites?

How can the weather be hot as hell one day an cold as hell another?

Crazy English

We take English for granted. But if we explore its paradoxes, we find that quicksand can work slowly, boxing rings are square, and a guinea pig is neither from Guinea nor is it a pig.

And why is it that writers write, but fingers don’t fing, grocers don’t groce, and hammers don’t ham?

If the plural of tooth is teeth, why isn’t the plural of booth beeth?

One goose, 2 geese. So, one moose, 2 meese? One index, two indices? Is cheese the plural of choose?
Past Perfect Tense: Answer Key
I'm sorry I left without you last night, but I told you to meet me early because the show started at 8:00. By the time I finally left the coffee shop where we were supposed to meet, I (have) had had five cups of coffee and I (wait) had been waiting over an hour. I had to leave because I (arrange) had arranged to meet Amjad in front of the theatre. When I arrived at the theater, Amjad (pick, already) had already picked up the tickets and he was waiting for us near the entrance. He was really angry. He said he (give, almost) had almost given up and (go) gone into the theater without us. Amjad told me you (be) had been late several times in the past. He mentioned that he (miss) had missed several movies because of your late arrivals. I think you owe him an apology. And in the future, I suggest you be on time!
Present Perfect Tense: Answer key
We haven’t seen Jamal for ages. I do not know what has happened to him. I didn’t see Ahmed in the office yesterday. Do you know where he was. They’ve known each other since they were at school together. They’ve always been very good friends.
I’ve had this dress for ages. I’ve worn it many times. I bought it when I went to Lahore I a few years ago.
I love his books. I’ve read them all several times. A friend gave me his first book and since then, I’ve bought them all.
I studied Sindhi in school but I’ve forgotten most of it now because I’ve never had the chance to practice it.
Why to acquire mastery over past perfect?
The past perfect tense is one way to put actions in order.  As has been mentioned, it would feel quite unnatural to repeatedly refer to the time something happened.  In addition, and especially when speaking, the speaker may forget to tell some information or other information may need clarification.  As a result, the past perfect plays an important role.  Look at the following:
    Dave:  Yesterday was an absolutely awful day!     Ken:  Really?     Dave:  Yeah!  I woke up late.  By the time I got out of the house, I had spilled coffee on my shirt and realized I didn't have any clean ones.  So I put on a shirt that I had worn a few days before.  On the way to the station, I realized that I had forgotten to lock the door, so I ran back home.  At work, my boss yelled at me because I hadn't finished the report for the 10:00 meeting with the head of marketing.  And that was only the morning...
Using Textbook Grammar Activities
Textbooks usually provide the following three types of grammar exercises.
Mechanical drills: Mechanical drills are the least useful because they bear little resemblance to real communication. They do not require students to learn anything; they only require parroting of a pattern or rule.
Meaningful drills: Meaningful drills can help students develop understanding of the workings of rules of grammar because they require students to make form-meaning correlations. Their resemblance to real communication is limited by the fact that they have only one correct answer.
Communicative drills: Communicative drills require students to be aware of the relationships among form, meaning, and use. In communicative drills, students test and develop their ability to use language to convey ideas and information.
- Recognizing Types -Supplementing

Developing Grammar Activities
For curricula that introduce grammatical forms in a specified sequence, instructors need to develop activities that relate form to meaning and use.
 Describe the grammar point, including form, meaning, and use, and give examples (structured input)
Ask students to practice the grammar point in communicative drills (structured output)
Have students do a communicative task that provides opportunities to use the grammar point (communicative output)

For curricula that follow a sequence of topics, instructors need to develop activities that relate the topical discourse (use) to meaning and form.

Provide oral or written input (audiotape, reading selection) that addresses the topic (structured input)
Review the point of grammar, using examples from the material (structured input)
Ask students to practice the grammar point in communicative drills that focus on the topic (structured output)
Have students do a communicative task on the topic (communicative output)
Goals and Techniques for Teaching Grammar

The goal of grammar instruction is to enable students to carry out their communication purposes. This goal has three implications:

Students need overt instruction that connects grammar points with larger communication contexts.

Students do not need to master every aspect of each grammar point, only those that are relevant to the immediate communication task.

Error correction is not always the instructor's first responsibility.
Teaching Grammar to Young Learners

Presenting the grammatical structure in a child's context, with humour

Practising the grammatical structure

Drawing and writing on the board

Story telling

Songs and chants

Rhymes and poems

Total Physical Response
Grammar for Beginning Level:

Regardless of the fact that the recommended text is functional, communicative or structural, grammar and grammar sequencing is in issue.

The scheme would be ‘simple to complex’. Typically it deals with very simply verb forms, pronouns, articles, singular and plural pronouns in a progression.

For EFL learners, if L1 is same, teacher may use L1 for explanations.

In an ESL classroom, where teacher must rely on English language only, grammatical explanation of any complexity will overwhelm the learners.

An inductive approach with suitable examples and patterns will be more effective.
Classroom activities used in CLT
Role play
Information gap
Language exchange
Pair work
Learning by teaching

However, not all courses that utilize the communicative language approach will restrict their activities solely to these. Some courses will have the students take occasional grammar quizzes, or prepare at home using non-communicative drills, for instance
In a CLT classroom, the teacher pays more attention to enabling students to work with the target language and communicate in it. The following is the typical procedure of a grammar lesson according to a CLT author- Adrian Doff (1981).
The teacher uses visual aids to present the grammar structure to be taught.
Students deduce the meaning, the form and the use of it.
The teacher checks students understanding by asking yes/no questions focusing on form, meaning and use.
The teacher gets students to practice the structure through Repetition and Substitution Drills, Word Prompts, and Picture Prompts. The teacher provides maximum practice within controlled, but realistic and contextualised frameworks and to build students’ confidence in using the new language. The teacher provides students with opportunities to use new language in a freer, more creative way. The students can integrate new language with the previously learnt language and apply what they have learnt to talk about their real life activities.
Teachers using the Lexical Approach will not analyse the target
language in the classroom, but will be more inclined to
concentrate learners' attention upon these chunks. This new
approach develops many of the fundamental principles
advanced by proponents of Communicative Approaches. The
most important difference is the increased understanding of the
nature of lexis in naturally occurring language, and its potential
contribution to language pedagogy. The guiding principles of
the Lexical Approach:
The grammar/vocabulary dichotomy is invalid.
Collocation is used as an organizing principle.
Successful language is a wider concept than accurate language.
The Observe-Hypothesise-Experiment cycle replaces the Present-Practise-Produce Paradigm.
Most importantly, language consists of grammaticalised lexis--not lexicalised grammar
Thirdly, functional grammar is concerned with the way in which grammar is organised to make meaning. Because it is concerned with meaning, it can be related directly to the concerns of teachers and students in all subject areas.
Three levels of functions are distinguished in terms of functional notions:

   i. SEMANTIC FUNCTIONS (Agent, Patient, Recipient, etc.) which define the roles that participants play in states of affairs, as designated by predications.

     ii.SYNTACTIC FUNCTIONS (Subject and Object) which define different perspectives through which states of affairs are presented in linguistic expressions.

iii.PRAGMATIC FUNCTIONS (Theme and Tail, Topic and Focus) which define the informational status of constituents of linguistic expressions. They are determined by the status of the pragmatic information of Speaker and Addressee as it develops in verbal interaction.
Functional grammar has following three specific features:
Firstly, it is based on the notion of choice - it models grammar as a set of options (a repertoire or resource). This means that it presents grammar to teachers and students as a set of tools they can use rather than a set of rules about what not to do.
Secondly, functional grammar looks at the way in which grammar is used to construct texts in their context of use - it is concerned in other words with real language not just with the made up examples of language that can be found in many language tests, exercises, work sheets or traditional grammar books. Its application is not restricted to the analysis of isolated sentences - it explains the way in which sentences are structured to construct whole texts such as stories, essays and reports which students learn to read and write in primary and secondary school.
Descriptive grammar and Prescriptive grammar

Descriptive grammar refers to the structure of a language as it is actually used by speakers and writers.

Prescriptive grammar refers to the structure of a language as certain people think it should be used.

Both kinds of grammar are concerned with rules-but in different ways. Specialists in descriptive grammar (called linguists) study the rules or patterns that underlie our use of words, phrases, clauses, and sentences. On the other hand, prescriptive grammarians (such as most editors and teachers) lay out rules about what they believe to be the “correct” or “incorrect” use of language.
Acquisition vs. Learning:

The hypothesis is that adult language students have two distinct ways of developing skills and knowledge in a second language, acquisition and learning. Acquiring a language is "picking it up" i.e., developing ability in a language by using it in natural, communicative situations. Learning language differs in that it is "knowing the rules" and having a conscious knowledge of grammar / structure. Adults acquire language, although usually not as easily or as well as children. Acquisition, however, is the most important means for gaining linguistic skills. A person's first language (L1) is primarily learned in this way. This manner of developing language skills typically employs implicit grammar teaching and learning.
Grammar teaching should be implicit
In the early 20th century, Jespersen, like Boas, thought grammar should be studied by examining living speech rather than by analyzing written documents. By providing grammar in context, in an implicit manner, we can expose students to substantial doses of grammar study without alienating them to the learning of English or other foreign language. I also agree with this implicit approach of teaching grammar. The principal manner in which I accomplish this is by teaching short grammar-based sessions immediately followed by additional function-based lessons in which the new grammar / structure is applied in context.
Discovery Learning is a method of inquiry- based instruction and is considered a constructivist based approach to education. It is supported by the work of learning theorists and psychologists Jean Piaget, Jerome Bruner, and Seyour Papert. Although this form of instruction has great popularity, there is some debate in the literature concerning its efficacy (Mayer, 2004).

Discovery Learning takes place in problem solving situations where the learner draws on his own experience and prior knowledge and is a method of instruction through which students interact with their environment by exploring and manipulating objects, wrestling with questions and controversies, or performing experiments.
Covert grammar teaching means that grammatical facts are hidden from the students- even though they are learning the language. Students may be asked to do any activity where a new grammar is presented or introduced, but their attention will be drawn to this activity not to the grammar.

Overt grammar teaching means that the teacher actually provides the students grammatical rules and explanations-the information is openly presented.
With overt teaching grammatical rules are explicitly given to students, but with covert teaching students are simply asked to work with new language to absorb grammatical information which will help them to acquire the language as a whole.
The deductive approach represents a more traditional style of teaching in that the grammatical structures or rules are dictated to the students first (Rivers and Temperley 110). Thus, the students learn the rule and apply it only after they have been introduced to the rule. For example, if the structure to be presented is present perfect, the teacher would begin the lesson by saying, "Today we are going to learn how to use the present perfect structure". Then, the rules of the present perfect structure would be outlined and the students would complete exercises, in a number of ways, to practice using the structure. (Goner, Phillips, and Walters 135) In this approach, the teacher is the center of the class and is responsible for all of the presentation and explanation of the new material.
Inductive approach and Deductive approach

The more traditional of the two theories, is the deductive approach, while the emerging and more modern theory, is the inductive approach. (Goner, Phillips, and Walters 135-136).

With Inductive approach, the teacher's role is to provide meaningful contexts to encourage demonstration of the rule, while the students evolve the rules from the examples of its use and continued practice (Rivers and Temperley 110).

Following Stern(1992:150), we can represent the deductive and inductive sequences schematically in the following way:

Deductive approach: 
General rule → Specific examples → Practice

Inductive approach: 
Specific examples → Practice → General rule
Procedural knowledge does not translate automatically into declarative knowledge; many native speakers can use their language clearly and correctly without being able to state the rules of its grammar. Likewise, declarative knowledge does not translate automatically into procedural knowledge; students may be able to state a grammar rule, but consistently fail to apply the rule when speaking or writing.
Language learners are often frustrated by the disconnect between knowing the rules of grammar and being able to apply those rules automatically in listening, speaking, reading, and writing. This disconnect reflects a separation between declarative knowledge and procedural knowledge.

Declarative knowledge is knowledge about something.

Declarative knowledge enables a student to describe a rule of grammar and apply it in pattern practice drills.

·  Procedural knowledge is knowledge of how to do something. Procedural knowledge enables a student to apply a rule of grammar in communication.

E.g: Declarative knowledge is what you have when you read and understand the instructions for programming the DVD player. Procedural knowledge is what you demonstrate when you program the DVD player.
6. Grammar structures are learned one at a time.

7. Grammar has to do only with sentence-level and
subsentence-level phenomena.

8. Grammar and vocabulary are areas of knowledge. Reading, writing, speaking, and listening are the four skills.

9. Grammars provide the rules/explanations for all the structures in a language.

10. "I don't know enough to teach grammar."

Grammar and Its Teaching: Challenging the Myths

Diane Larsen-Freeman, School for International Training (VT)

1. Grammar is acquired naturally; it need not be taught.

2. Grammar is a collection of meaningless forms.

3. Grammar consists of arbitrary rules.

4. Grammar is boring.

5. Students have different learning styles. Not all students can learn grammar.
Grammar is the structural foundation of our ability to express ourselves. The more we are aware of how it works, the more we can monitor the meaning and effectiveness of the way we and others use language. It can help foster precision, detect ambiguity, and exploit the richness of expression available in English. And it can help everyone--not only teachers of English, but teachers of anything, for all teaching is ultimately a matter of getting to grips with meaning.

David Crystal,
"In Word and Deed,"
(TES Teacher, April 30, 2004)
Parallelism means that words used in pairs or groups should all have the same gram-matical form (verbs and verbs; nouns, nouns, and nouns; gerunds and gerunds, etc.) When using words or phrases with coordinating conjunctions or in a series, make sure that they follow the same grammatical structure. For example,
Terry likes swimming and to dive. (Incorrect: not parallel
Terry likes swimming and diving. (Correct) Terry likes to swim and (to) dive. (Correct)
I'm taking history, math, and chemical. (Incorrect) I'm taking history, math, and chemistry. (Correct)
Sometimes repeated words, such as auxiliary verbs, can be deleted in parallel constructions.
I have been to Paris and saw the Eiffel Tower. (Incorrect) I have been to Paris and have seen the Eiffel Tower. (Okay) I have been to Paris and seen the Eiffel Tower. (Better)
Is she coming to the party or go to a movie? (Incorrect) Is she coming to the party or going to a movie? (Correct)
Grammar teaching should be explicit
This does not exclude explicit grammar-teaching entirely, however. In cases where features of English grammar are diametrically opposed or in some other way radically different from the manner of expression in the student's L1, explicit teaching may be required.
An exclusive approach using either implicit or explicit methodologies is not as effective as utilizing one or the other of these approaches as required. There is no one best way to introduce and provide practice in them. Young learners have more natural facility in acquisition, while adults may benefit substantially from more "formal" language learning. Learning styles and intelligence strengths are also a significant factor.
The inductive approach represents a more modern style of teaching where the new grammatical structures or rules are presented to the students in a real language context (Goner, Phillips, and Walters 135). The students learn the use of the structure through practice of the language in context, and later realize the rules from the practical examples.

For example, if the structure to be presented is the comparative form, the teacher would begin the lesson by drawing a figure on the board and saying, "This is Jim. He is tall." Then, the teacher would draw another taller figure next to the first saying, "This is Bill. He is taller than Jim." The teacher would then provide many examples using students and items from the classroom, famous people, or anything within the normal daily life of the students, to create an understanding of the use of the structure. The students repeat after the teacher, after each of the different examples, and eventually practice the structures meaningfully in groups or pairs.

Teaching Grammar
Selection of the most Appropriate

Grammar for Intermediate level:
Student can benefit from short, simple explanations of points in English.
Overt attention in grammar can be exceedingly helpful at this stage. E.g: she can kept her child. A student, when referring to past He must paid the insurance. tense, used to say things like.
A simple explanation from his teacher about modal auxiliaries ‘cured him.
Grammar explanation must be minimum. But it should not be dominant focus of student attention.

Grammar for Advanced level:
At this level grammar teaching is linked with ‘functional forms’, ‘sociolinguistic’ and ‘pragmatic phenomena.

Deductive grammar has its place at this level.
The end
Not all lexical items can be freely substituted into a particular pattern.
E.g., insist
Helping students understand the reason is better than telling them the rules.
E.g., there is
Patterns and Reasons, Not Rules

An inductive activity is one in which students infer the rule or generalization from a set of examples.
A deductive activity is one in which students are given the rule and they apply it to examples.
A combination of induction and deduction produces the best result.
Inductive Versus Deductive Presentation
Teachers have to introduce structures that don’t naturally arise in classroom discourse.

Teachers might think in terms of a grammar checklist, rather than a grammatical sequence.
Related Pedagoggical issues
It is an essential function of language teaching.
How to provide feedback:
2.Getting students to self-correct.
3.Giving students an explicit rule.
4.Collect students’ errors, then identify the typical ones in class.
Providing Feedback
1.Realia and pictures are very useful.
2.Actions can make meaning salient.
4.An operation
The Teaching Process-meaning
1.Twenty Questions
2.Family portrait
3.Cuisenaire rods
4.Problem solving activity-information gap/sentence-unscrambling task
The characteristics of practice activity.
1.meaningful practice.
2.Students receive feedback on the accuracy with which they produced the target form.
3.Structural diversity would not by permitted.
4.Concentrate on only one or two forms at a time.
5.Input processing(Van Patten 1996) -the activities push learners to attend to properties of language during activities where the structure is being used meaningfully.
E.g., students are asked to act out commands.

Output production is extremely important. It pushes students to move beyond semantic processing to syntactic processing (Swain 1985) .

When the rules are not clear-cut, detailed instruction with explicit metalinguistic feedback may be the most helpful response to student errors (Carroll and Swain 1993).
3.Consciousness-raising task
E.g., students’ job is to induce a grammatical generalization from the data they have been given.

4.The garden path strategy (Tomasello and Herron 1988;1989)
E.g., giving students information about structure without giving them the full picture, thus making it seem easier than it is.
1.Enhancing the input (Sharwood Smith 1993)
E.g., boldfacing all the normally insalient artices in a given passage.

2.Input flooding
E.g., choosing texts in whch a particular structure is especially frequent.
The way of teaching -bring to students’ attention, or to promote their noticing of, some feature of a grammatical structure.

The teacher might recast or reformulate what the student has said or written incorrectly in a more accurate, meaningful, or appropriate manner.

To highlight the grammatical structure in a text in some fashion.
Learners do not learn structures one at a time.

Even when learners appear to gave mastered a particular structure, it is not uncommon to find backsliding occurring with the introduction of new forms to the learners’ interlanguage.

Second language learners rely on the knowledge and the experience they have.

Different learning processes are responsible for different aspects of language.
The Learning Process
It is better to think of teaching “grammaring” rather than “grammar.”(Larsen-Freeman 1997; 2001)

Grammaring-helping students be able to use grammar skillfully, a goal that requires significant practice.

Enable students to use grammatical structures accurately, meaningfully, and appropriately.
ESL/EFL teacher do not have to present all of this information to students at once.

Teachers identify where the learning challenges will lie for their students according to three dimensions.

E.g., for phrasal verbs, the meaning dimension is the most difficult part.
Identifying the Challenge
Phrasal verbs seem to be more common in informal spoken discourse. (e.g., put out a fire versus extinguish a fire )

If a noun phrase object is dominant (i.e., a long NP representing new information), it is likely to occur after the particle; if the direct object is short, old information (i.e., a pronoun), it would occur before the particle.
Use of Phrasal verbs
Phrasal verbs are two-part verbs comprising a verb and a particle (e.g., to look up).
Some particles can be separated from its verb by an intervening object (e.g., Alicia looked the word up in the dictionary).
Phrasal verbs have distinctive stress and juncture patterns.
E.g., Alicia looked up the word. / Alicia walked up the street.
Example: Phrasal verbs
Form of Phrasal verbs
Possession can be expressed in other ways: with a possessive determiner (e.g., his) or with the periphrastic of the form (e.g., the legs of the table).

The of the form is used with nonhuman head nouns and ’s with human head nouns.

Native speakers prefer to use the ’s with inanimate human head nouns if the head nouns are performing some action.

E.g., the train’s arrival was delayed

A noun compound (table leg) is more appropriate than either the ’s form for the of the form
Use of Possessive
It indicates description (a debtor’s prison), amount (a month’s holiday), relationship (Jack’s wife), part/ whole (My brother’s hand), and origin / agent (Shakespeare’s tragedies).
Meaning of Possessive
The way of forming possessives requires inflecting regular singular nouns and irregular plural nouns not ending in s with ’s or by adding an apostrophe after the s’ ending of regular plural nouns and singular nouns ending in the sound /s/.

E.g., dog’s / men’s /dogs’ / bus’
Example: the ’s possessive form
Form of Possessive

What does it mean?

When/Why is it used?

How is it formed?
The influence of pragmatics may be ascertained by asking two questions:

1.When or why does a speaker/ writer choose a particular grammar structure over another that could express the same meaning or accomplish the same purpose?

2.When or why does a speaker/ writer vary the form of a particular linguistic structure?
Form-how a particular grammar structure is constructed and how it is sequenced with other structures in a sentence or text.

Meaning-what a grammar structure means.

Pragmatics-the study of those relations between language and context that are grammaticalized, or encoded in the structure of a language (Levinson 1983).

Register-the language of groups of people with common interests of jobs, or the language used in situations associated with such groups.
Three dimensions: structure or form, semantics or meaning, and the pragmatic conditions governing use.

The dimensions are not arranged as traditional characterizations of linguistic strata depict.

A change in any one wedge will have repercussions for the other two.
Grammatical structures not only have (morphosyntactic form, they are also used to express meaning (semantics) in context-appropriate use (pragmatics)).

To construct an approach, it would be helpful to have a frame of reference.

The form of a pie chart helps us to make salient that in dealing with the complexity of grammar.
What are discussed in this chapter includes view of grammar, issues concerning its learning, and its teaching.
Research has shown that teachers who focus students’ attention on linguistic form during communicative interactions are more effective than those who never focus on form or who only do so in decontextualized grammar lessons (Spada and Lightbown 1993; Lightbown 1998).

The balance between grammar and communication is encouraged.
There are two types of approaches to language teaching: those that focus on analyzing the language and those that focus on using the language.

An example of the shift is the loss of popularity of the cognitive-code approach, in which analyzing structures and applying rules are common practices, and the rise of more communicative approaches, which emphasize language use over rules of language usage (Widdowson 1978).
Teaching Grammar

1.Role plays
3.The role of an advice columnist
4.A job interview
The Teaching Process-use
It’s important to emphasize meaningful practice of form.
1.Meaningless mechanical drills do not engage the learner in the target behavior of conveying meaning through language.
2.The inert knowledge problem
3.When the psychological conditions of learning and application are matched what has been learned is more likely to be transferred.
4.Student motivation is likely to be enhanced if they are able to interact in a way that is meaningful to them.
The Teaching Process-form
“The PPP” approach-presentation, practice, and production.

Communicatively oriented approach-starting with a communicative activity such as task- or content-based material.

Teachers respond to grammar errors that students commit when engaged in communication.
The Teaching Process
There are literal Phrasal verbs (e.g., to hang up), figurative Phrasal verbs (e.g., to run into).

As with single-word verbs, phrasal verbs can have more than one meaning (e.g., to come across, meaning “to discover by chance” as in I came across this old book in the library, or when used intransitively, “to make an impression” as in Richard came across well at the convention.)
Meaning of Phrasal verbs


‘s versus possessive determiner
‘s versus of the
‘s versus noun compounds

‘s or s’

A Three-Dimensional Grammar Framework

Lexical meaning
Grammatical meaning

Social context
Linguistic discourse context
Presuppositions about context

Morphosyntactic and lexical patterns
Phonemic/ graphemic patterns


‘s versus possessive determiner
‘s versus of the
‘s versus noun compounds

Verb + Particle (or)
Verb + Particle + Preposition
Transitive/ Intransitive
Separable/ Inseparable
Stress and Juncture Patterns
What are you really saying???

On tonight’s program Dr Ruth will discuss sex with Dick Cavett.

He shot an elephant in his pyjamas.

So now we have learnt about pronouncing letters in a word, how about stress in words.

What is word stress?

What is sentence stress?

Pronunciation and Stress
Focusing on grammatical form during communicative interactions rather than forms in isolation (Long 1991) is one way to prevent the pendulum from swinging beyond its point of equilibrium.
Simon's Adventure

Word Stress

 Where does the stress fall on the following words?

1) Homophone

2) Connect

3) Inspiring

4) Conduct

5) Text-book

6) Address

7) Talked

8) Calcification

9) Geographic

10) Democracy
Word Stresses Within a Sentence

For example, look at the sentence "Karen doesn't think George wants to go to college." The meaning of this sentence is simple when you first read it. But if certain words are stressed in the sentence, the meaning either changes or we gain some new information.

Changing Sentence Meanings

“Karen doesn't think GEORGE wants to go to college.”
The stress on “George” then becomes a clarification -- someone might want to go to college, but not George.

“Karen doesn't think George WANTS to go to college” tells us that George has considered college, but doesn’t like the idea. “Karen doesn't think George wants to go to COLLEGE” indicates that George may have plans, but not a plan to attend college.
Sentence Stress

 Think about how the varying stress in this sentence affects meaning, how does the meaning change?The word in bold is the word being stressed.

1) I gave Paul a phone.

2) I gave Paul a phone.

3) I gave Paul a phone.

4) I gave Paul a phone.

5) I gave Paul a phone.
Have a break!!
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