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Biodiversity Loss

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Renee Nathaniel

on 9 January 2015

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Transcript of Biodiversity Loss

Biodiversity Loss
Biodiversity Loss
Causes
Impact
Position
Conclusion
Introduction
What is biodiversity and why is it important?
Biodiversity: The variety of life in a specific ecosystem or habitat

Plants absorb greenhouse gases and help stop global warming
It is easier for biodiverse ecosystems to recover from natural disasters
Healthy biodiversity of species can provide a variety of food (like meat and produce)
Many of our medicinal drugs come from plants
All of our wood products come from nature
Causes of Biodiversity Loss
Human population growth & overexploitation of resources

Invasive alien species

Habitat loss

Pollution and contamination

Climate change
Biodiversity Loss


Group 30:
Jorge Jauregui
Buyun Jeong
Renee Nathaniel
Gustavo Sorto


December 3, 2013
Questions
Reference:
1. Worm, B.; Barbier, E. B.; Beaumont, N.; Duffy, E.; Folke, C.; Halpern, B. S.; Jackson, J. B. C.; Lotze, H. K.; Micheli, F.; Palumbi, S. R.; Sala, E.; Selkoe, K. A.; Stachowicz, J. J.; Watson, R. Impacts of Biodiversity Loss on Ocean Ecosystem Services. Science Mag. 314, 787 (2006). DOI: 10.1126/science.1132294. Published online: February 1, 2008. (Accessed on November 25, 2013). www.sciencemag.org

2. Diaz, S.; Fargione, J.; Chapin, F. S.; Tilman, D. Biodiversity Loss Threatens Human Well-Being. PLoS Biol. 4(8): e277 (2006). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0040277. Published online: August 15, 2006. (Accessed on November 25, 2013). www.plosbiology.org

3. Stein, B. A.; Adams, J. S.; Kutner, L. S. Precious Heritage: The Status of Biodiversity in the United States. Oxford University Press, New York: (2000). (Accessed on November 26, 2013)

4. Austin, Kelly F. Export agriculture is feeding malaria: A cross-national examination of the environmental and social causes of malaria prevalence. Springer Netherlands, Netherlands (2013). (Accessed on November 26, 2013)

5. Navjot S. Sodhi, Lian Pin Koh, Barry W. Brook, Peter K.L. Ng, Southeast Asian biodiversity: an impending disaster, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Volume 19, Issue 12, December 2004, Pages 654-660, ISSN 0169-5347. http://www.sciencedirect.com

6. The Arctic Experience: Arctic Biodiversity Beyond Polar Bears GRID-Arendal http://www.grida.no/polar/news/2393.aspx

7.Cardinale, Bradley J. "Biodiversity loss and its impact on humanity." Nature June : 59-67. (Accessed on 20 Nov. 2013.)

8. European Commission. Taking into account opportunity costs when assessing costs of biodiversity and ecosystem action. European Commission. Final Report ed. Berlin: Ecologic Institute, 2011. (Accessed on 20 Nov. 2013.)
Our Position
Currently people are becoming more aware of the effects of biodiversity loss and taking precautions

More organizations are working on new ways to lower biodiversity loss more effectively
Possible Approaches
Preserving of biodiversity and reduce of deforestation to increase use of renewable systems in the future
Key Points
Reducing agricultural expansion and defending against invasive species which intensify biodiversity loss
The major causes of biodiversity loss are: human population growth & overexploitation of resource, invasive alien specie, habitat loss, pollution and contamination, and climate change
Habitat Loss
Three major kinds:
- Habitat Destruction: Direct destruction such as mowing fields, filling in wetlands, dredging rivers

- Habitat Fragmentation: Cut up into fragments by roads and development

- Habitat Degradation: Pollution, invasive species and disruption of ecosystem processes

Human Population Growth & Overexploitation of Resources
Continue improving on mitigation technologies and renewable energy systems but can be an expensive process
Human population has increased almost at an exponential rate

Increased demand for goods and services to meet the needs of a growing population

Hunting, fishing and gathering

In 2009, humanity used 40% more resources than nature can regenerate in a year


Terrestrial Habitat Transformation
Source: World Resources Institute. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Synthesis, p.4 (Washington, DC: Island Press)
http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/big-idea/11/biodiversity
Affected regions
- Arctic Region
Changes affect other regions
Migratory species
Cycles

- Southeast Asia
High rate of deforestation
Biodiversity hotspot
Climate Change
Gases that contribute to Greenhouse effect are: carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, and chlorofluorocarbons

More CO2 in atmosphere = more CO2 in ocean

Increasing ocean acidification

Increasing oceanic dead zones (areas too low in DO to support life)
Possible approaches to reduce loss: reduction of deforestation, reduction of agricultural expansion, renewable energy systems
The extent of floating ice in the Arctic Ocean showed a steady decline.
Source: National Snow and Ice Data Center, graph compiled by Secretariat of The Convention on Biological Diversity (2010) Global Biodiversity Outlook 3, May 2010.

http://www.biologicaldiversity.org/campaigns/overpopulation/etinction_and_population_graph.html

Source: http://treadsoftly.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/biodiversity-chart-WWF-LPR.jpg
Pollution and Contamination
Biological systems respond slowly to changes in their surrounding environment

Pollution and contamination cause irreversible damage to species

Besides chemicals, the excess of energy such as sound, heat or light is also considered as a pollutant
Source: http://www.makingitmagazine.net/?p=2510
http://environment.umn.edu/
www.unep.org
http://mmm.multiedition.fi/syke/layout/E4_2009_kuvat
Source: Pacific Marine Environment Laboratory, NOAA

Source: http://www.oni.escuelas.edu.ar/2005/GCBA/1020/imagenes/bio21.jpg
Invasive Alien Species
Non-native species

Alien species feed on native species, compete with them, transmit diseases, and modify habitats.

Many species cause serious damage to human activities and therefore on the economy of a region or country.

Impacts on ecosystem
Impacts on humans
Impacts on economy
- Loss of potential medicines
ex) 25% of prescriptions contain active
ingredients extracted from higher
plants

- Loss of medical models
ex) Dart-poison frogs, bears and
sharks
- EU spends 10.4 billion euros( $14billion)
to address the challenge of halting the
loss of diversity

- Nations spend money to recover damaged
ecosystem
Ex) Restoration of endangered animals
- Biodiversity loss decreases
the stability of ecosystem functions

- Its impact on ecosystem is nonlinear
and saturating

-Diverse communities are
more productive
source: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v486/n7401/pdf/nature11148.pdf
Source: http://www.popularmechanics.com/cm/popularmechanics/images/TU/invasive-species-01-0512-lgn.jpg
Biodiversity Hotspots
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