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Deprivation and Privation - AS Psychology
Transcript of Deprivation and Privation - AS Psychology
and Privation Privation Outline one study of research into disruption os attachment (4 marks) Explain the difference between privation and disruption of attachment (4 marks) Outline and evaluate the effects of disruption of attachment (12 marks) The Czech Twins (1976) Privation is the lack of having any attachments due to the failure to develop such attachments during early life. Deprivation can be caused by
disruption such as separation. A two year old goes to hospital Bowlby Deprivation Together they proposed a model of the short-term effects of separation involving three stages. He believed that there was a critical period for attachment.
Separation during this period could mean no primary attachments are formed.
This could lead to emotional consequences such as: James Robertson used a cine camera to record his observation of daily life in a hospital, focusing on a little girl called Laura.
Their mother died
They spent the first 7 years of their life locked up by their stepmother
When they were discovered they couldn't talk Found on November 4th, 1970 - When an attachment with a caregiver is broken Protest She'd lived 13 years of her life locked away - most of it spent tied to a potty chair She lived in almost total isolation She couldn't speak, was severely malnourished and had a distinct 'bunny walk' Detachment Despair The effects of separation were looked into by both Bowlby and Robertson. Protest crying
clinging to mother these actions aim to prevent the separation Despair reserved
uninterested The child is not
content with the separation but rather hides their distress Detachment child shows increased interaction this is only superficial. Child has little initial interest in primary caregiver on return. Aggressiveness
Dependency anxiety (‘clinging’)
Dwarfism (retarded growth)
Affectionless psychopathy (showing no feelings for others)
Social maladjustment This was backed up by research that he carried out Bowlby came up with this theory: "If the attachment figure is broken or disrupted during the critical two year period the child will suffer irreversible long-term consequences of this maternal deprivation" This is his Maternal Deprivation Hypothesis 44 Thieves (1944) Bowlby studied a group of 44 juvenile thieves who attended a child guidance clinic, and compared them with a control group of another 44 adolescents He found that more than half of the thieves had been separated from their mothers for more than 6 months as infants, compared to 2 people in the control group. He also found that 32% of the thieves showed Affectionless Psychopathy (the inability to care or feel for others) Compared to none in the control group. Bowlby concluded that the reason for the anti-social behavior and emotional problems in the first group was due to maternal deprivation Laura was admitted for an eight day stay
she had to face the fears, frights and hurts with no familiar person to cling to Her parents visited occasionally and she kept begging to go home
She tried to cope with the disappointment of having to stay Then she becomes quiet and "settles". But at the end of her stay she is withdrawn from her mother, shaken in her trust. This was a naturalistic observation (1952) high mundane realism
high internal validity Advantages Disadvantages it focuses on only one child (less reliable) - When people fail to form attachments After discovery they were cared for by loving sisters
By age 14 they had near normal intellectual and social functioning
By age 20 they were above average intelligence and had excellent relationships with other people "Genie" Wiley The study is realistic to experiences like those in the real world The Robertsons found information that they were looking for Some exam style questions you can try out The question says outline, so you need to be thinking about AO1 (describing), not AO2 (evaluating)
Privation is not disruption of attachment, you'll lose marks if you talk about Genie
Think about bowlby's Maternal deprivation hypothesis
hints: The question's worth 4 marks. There are two parts: 2 marks for disruption and 2 for privation.
Try and give a brief definition followed by an example of research for each part. hints: