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Neuroblastoma

By: Rebekah Kiel
by

Rebekah Kiel

on 5 April 2011

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Transcript of Neuroblastoma

Neuroblastoma By: Rebekah Kiel Description Type of cancer that forms in the nerve cells around a fetus or an embryo
After birth, forms in the Sympathetic Nervous System Who Gets It? Most common type of cancer in infants
Around 650 children are diagnosed with Neuroblastoma every year in the U.S.
30% of the cases are cured
Boys are more likely to get it than girls When Do They Get It? Can be detected while in the womb
Most children are diognosed around 1 or 2 years old
Rarely diognosed after age 10 Causes Most cases are not inherited (sporadic)
Only 1-2% of cases are inherited (familial) Familial Usually have one or more family members who have had the cancer
Diognosed quicker than sporadic cases
More likely to develop in several organs Causes Not certain on the real reasons why people get this cancer
DNA is mutated while a child is developing, but there is no known cause for why it mutates
Mutation in DNA is only in cancer cells Diagnosis Symptoms Usually a lump in the abdomen, sometimes neck
When the lump swells, it can cause discomfort and lack of an appetite
Also can cause throat and or neck to swell. This can make breathing and swallowing difficult When tumor is in the chest or neck, it can cause droopy eyelids or smaller pupils
If nerves around spinal cord are affected, can cause the inablity to move or feel arms and/or legs
Pain in bones
Purpleish-blue bumps on skin Testing Starts with a physical
Blood and urine tests
measures for Homovanillic acid levels and Vanillylmandelic acid levels
Ultrasound, X-ray, CT scan, MRI scan, etc. Risk Factors No known risk factors besides people in the family having Neuroblastoma Treatment Chemotheraphy, surgery, retinoid therapy, radiation, and immunotherapy
Normal to have more than one type of treatment Citations www.cancer.org
www.boston.com
www.ped-onc.org Immunotherapy New type of treatment No way to prevent it
If it runs in the family, make sure always be aware of possibilities Prevention INSS International Neuroblastoma Staging System


Recurrent: When and if the cancer comes back Stage 1: Cancer has not spread yet and can be completely removed with surgery Stage 2B: Cancer is still where it started. Lymph nodes (near tumor) most likely have Neuroblastoma cells Stage 4: The cancer has spread to distant sites such as distant lymph nodes, bone, liver, skin, bone marrow, or other organs" Stage 2A: Cancer is still in place where it started, however, it cannot be removed by surgery. Also, the cancer cells might be in the nearby lymph nodes now Stage 3: Cancer has crossed the spine and is in the middle of the body, growing towards both sides Stage 4S: (Special Neuroblastoma) Child is under age 1 and cancer is only on one side of the body
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