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biome project

rainforest biome project by isabel and leah
by

Isabel Amat

on 8 January 2014

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Transcript of biome project

Biotic Factors
Plants:
The Banyan Tree
Animals:
Tropical Rainforest
Abiotic Factors
Population Dynamics
Limiting Factors
Density Independent Factor:
Lack of fertile soil doesn't provide the necessary nutrients for seeds that land on the ground
Those seeds never sprout

Density Dependent Factor:
Because their dispersion is clumped, certain areas can become over populated
In these areas, lack of space and lack of nutrients becomes a problem
By Leah Groven & Isabel Amat
Population Dynamics
Limiting Factors
Species Interactions
Mimicry
Plant/Herbivore
Parasitism
Mutualism
Commensalism
Ecosystem Recycling
Biome Threat or Disturbance
Kinkajou
Density of Kinkajous
12-70 per square km
mostly live in the forest canopy

roam in groups of about 3-4
nocturnal animals which make population calculations difficult
only give birth once a year in the spring or summer
gestation period is around 112-118 days
only give birth to one offspring at a time
most kinkajous live til maturity
life span is 20-25 years
Density Independent Factor-
deforestation is a very big factor in the decrease of the kinkajou population because kinkajous rely on trees for their main source of food, shelter and protection
Density Dependent Factor-
kinkajous live mostly in the canopy of the rainforest and as the population of kinkajous increase their living space decreases causing them to find other less ideal places to find shelter and protection
Logging trees is becoming a major threat to the rainforest
If this threat is not addressed...
The worlds tropical forests could disappear permanently
Environmental scientists say at this rate, all tropical forests will be gone within 100 years
Endangered species that live in these trees could become extinct
Decreasing the threat
Opening or financially supporting nature preserves
Decrease in the amount of logging of trees
Drawbacks of these methods
The logging business is worth about $8 billion a year
Decreasing the amount of logging decreases profit as well
atmosphere is heated and causes moisture in the air and evaporated water to rise
water vapor condenses to form clouds
the clouds become heavy with the water and precipitation begins
80% of the rain never hits the ground, it's collected in the canopy
throughout the day water is evaporated again from the soil, plants, and bodies of water
RAINFALL
average annual rainfall is 67 in
In monsoon regions the rainfall varies (usually there is much more precipitation)
there can be up to 100in of rainfall each year
the plentiful amount of rain causes lush and dense vegetation in the rainforest
SUNLIGHT AND RADIATION
the canopy of the rainforest filters out about 80% of the sunlight
under the canopy remains darker throughout the day
only 2% of sunlight reaches the forest floor, the lowest level
because of the canopy animals and shorter plants must be able to survive in constant shade

on the forest floor there are almost no plants
TERTIARY CONSUMER:
JAGUAR
SECONDARY CONSUMER:
KINKAJOU
PRIMARY CONSUMERS:
TERMITES
PRODUCERS:
BANYAN TREE
WATER CYCLE
The water cycle in a rainforest is very important because there must be a lot of consistent rain to keep the animals and plants that are dependent on water alive
when one individual is harmed while another benefits
when 2 species benefit from one another
when one species benefits and the other is not affected
example: phorid flies lay eggs in leave cutter ants and then the larva feed off of the ants
example: leaf cutter ants defend and nurture fungus and fungus provides necessary food and nutrients for the ants
example: bromeliads give shelter and protection to tree frogs but they gain nothing in return
when one species closely resembles another species
example: the viceroy butterfly resembles the monarch butterfly which is toxic
example: passion flower vines mimic leaves of trees near by to hide from butterflies so they don't lay their eggs on them because caterpillars like to feed off of the vines
when a plant adapts to defend itself from herbivores
Soil Composition
Mostly poor in nutrients with a few fertile patches
Rain continuosly washes over the soil, taking the minerals and nutrients with it
Heat turns the soil into a clay-like substance
How does it relate to the ecology?
Plants and trees store nutrients in themselves instead of getting them from the soil
Growing trees tap nutrients from decaying plants and reuse them for themselves
The Seasons of the Tropical Rainforest
the tropical rainforest follows a cycle of wet and dry seasons.
Wet season:
-Lasts about 8 months
-Stays at an average of 78.5° F
-Effects: humidity keeps the rainforest warm during the day and at night.
Dry season:
-Lasts about 4 months
-Stays at an average of 82.2° F
-Effects: less rainfall, but still humid.

Special Information
Tropical forests the size of Virginia are cut down every year
Scientists believe there may be millions of plant and insect species in rainforests that haven't been discovered yet
More than 25% of natural medicines come from the rainforest
The Amazon rainforest is the largest tropical rainforest in the world, measuring over 1.4 billion acres
Rainforests used to cover approximately 14% of the Earth's surface, but now, due to logging and deforestation, only cover about 6%
Pyramid
Energy Transfer
Food Web
Food Web
Banyan Tree
Termite
Kinkajou
Jaguar
Dispersion: Clumped
Roots from one tree may become the trunk of another
Growing trees feed off of the nutrients from the trunk of decaying trees and the host tree
When seeds are carried by birds or wasps, they often land a few feet away or on the branch of another banyan tree
Therefore, these trees are usually found in clumps
The population is shrinking due to humans logging for wood
It reproduces when their seeds are spread by fruit-eating birds and fig wasps
It reproduces as often as possible, for birds and wasps are constantly pollinating and spreading the seeds
Few survive to maturity since some seeds that land on infertile soil don't sprout
They live an average of 200 years, but have been known to live for much longer
Toucan
Howler Monkey
Predator/Prey
When one animal eats or hunts another species
Example: A jaguar eats a kinkajou
Full transcript