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Transcendentalism and Anti-Transcendentalism

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Haruna Yamamoto

on 3 June 2011

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Transcript of Transcendentalism and Anti-Transcendentalism

Transcendentalism Transcendentalists Bronson Alcott Margaret Fuller Theodore Parker Henry David Thoreau Ralph Waldo Emerson Born on July 12, 1817 in Concord, Massachusetts Father made pencil
Mother took boarders Graduated Harvard College in 1837 Influenced by Emerson Believed people should do what they want to do Influenced Leo Tolstoy, Gandhi, and Maertin Luther King Wrote:
"Civil Disobidience" Walden (1854) A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers (1849) Excursion (1863) The Maine Woods (1864) Cape Cod (1868) A Yankee in Canada (1850) Slavery in Massachusetts (1854) A Plea for Captain John Brown (1854) to support him in Harpers Ferry Died on May 6, 1862 A social reformer Operated Temple School in Boston Tried to develop the bodies and spiritual natures Leading Abolitionist Opposed Mexican War Founder of Brook Farm and Vegetarian Fruitlands Born on November 29, 1799 in Walocott, Connecticut Died on March 4, 1888 Father of Louisa May Alcott (author of Little Women) American journalist and reformer leader of Transcendentalism Born on May 23, 1810 in Cambridgeport, Massachusetts 1804-1842: journalist-editor in chief for The Dial 1844-1846: New York Tribune-Papers on Literature and Art Women's right: Women in the Nineteenth Century (1845) showed political, economic, social, and intellectual status of women Went to Europe in 1846 1848: has a child with Marchese Angelo Ossoli Joined Italian Revolution: 1848-1849 Drowned and died in ship July 19, 1850 American Unitarian clergyman Social reformer Born in August 24, 1810 in Lexington, Massachusetts 1837-1846: pastor at Unitarian Church in west Roxburg, Massachusetts Insisted Christians reject the Bible, religious doctrine, and rituals To worship God directly Did not completly oppose organized religion Sermon called "Discourse on the Transient and Permanent in Christianity" (1841) 1820: leading abolitionist Died on May 10, 1860 What is it? philosophy 1700-1800 knowledge is not limited to experience and observation opposed Empiricism Solution to problems lie in people's emotion reality only exist in the world of spirit appearance of physical world are reflection of the world of spirit intuitive, personal, independent can be found in Neoplantonic Philosophy Critique of Pure Reason (1781) Immanual Kant philosophy, literary, religious, and social movement began in Unitarian in New England
peak in 1840 with Emerson Emerson: provided beauty, language, discipline, and commodity self-reliance and individuality society needs to be reformed churches interfered with personal relationship with God should gain knowledge about God through reason Characteristics A man has a relationship with nature Based on Plato's idea God is good and is part of nature People can overcome evil by trusting God God is within each individual Anti-Transcendentalism Nathaniel Hawthorne Herman Melville Edgar Allan Poe Born May 25, 1803 in Boston, Massachusetts Mid 1800-Late 1800 Dark Side of Individualism Gothic focus on the demonic, the fantastic and the insane pessimistic view saw the potential for evil in all people ‘Essential truths’ found in the darker side of human nature Similarities with Transcendentalism intuition over reason saw symbols and signs spiritual lie behind appearances Anti-Transcendentalists Difference spiritual fact are not good or harmless Puritans' mystical thought good and evil guilt and sin madman and derangement blackness and horror of people essayist, critic, poet, orator, philosopher Influenced Thoreau, Melville, Wgitman, Dickinson, James, and Frost Father died in 1811 Harvard College (1817-1821) 1829: Unitarian Pastor of Second Church of Boston wrote Platonism, Neoplatonism, Puritanism, Renaissance poetry, mysticism, idealism, skepticism, Romanticism Nature (1836)-"Transcendental Club" publishes The Dial "The American Scholar" in 1837 Essay (1841 & 1884) Representative Men (1850) English Traits (1856) Died on April 27, 1852 Poems (1846) May Day (1867) Born on July 4, 1804 Friends with Henry Longfellow and Franklin Pierce Edgar Allan Poe-His critic Bowdoin College (1821-1825) Mosses From an Old Manse (1846) The Scarlet Letter (1850) The House of the Seven Gables (1851) The Blithedale Romance (1852) The Marble Faun (1860) DIed May 19, 1864 Born 1902 University of Virginia (1826-1827) The Fall of the House of Usher (1839) Berenice (1835) Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesque (1939) Murders in the Rue Morgue (1841) The Masque of the Red Death (1842) The Pit and the Pendulum (1842) The Black Cat (1843) The Tell-Tale Heart (1843) The Purloined Letter (1845) The Cask of Amontillado (1846) Died October 7, 1849 Born August 1, 1819 Typee: A Peep at Polynesian Life (1846) Omoo (1847) Redburn (1849) Mardi (1849) White-Jacket; or, the World in a Man-of-War (1850) Moby-Dick, or the Whale (1851) Pierre, or The Ambiguities (1852) "Bartleby the Scrivever"Israel Potter (1855) The Confidence-Man (1857) Battle-Pieces and Aspects of the War (1866) Clarel: A Poem and a Pilgrimage (1876) Billy Budd, Sailor (1924) Died September 8, 1891 Works Cited Page
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