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Erik Erikson: 8 Stages
Transcript of Erik Erikson: 8 Stages
Erikson's Early Years
Trust vs. Mistrust
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
Industry vs. Inferiority
Initiative vs. Guilt
Identity vs. Role Confusion
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Stage 1: Oral-Sensory
Basic conflict: Trust vs. Mistrust
Ages: Birth-1 year
Important Event: Feeding
Summary: The infant must form a first loving, trusting relationship with the caregiver, or develop a sense of mistrust.
Stage 3: Locomotor
Basic Conflict: Initiative vs. Guilt
Ages: 3-6 years
Important Event: Independence
Summary: The child continues to become more assertive and to take more initiative, but may be too forceful, leading to feelings of guilt.
Stage 5: Adolescence
Basic Conflict: Identity vs. Role Confusion
Ages: 12-18 years
Important Event: Peer Relationships
Summary: The teenagers must achieve a sense of identity in occupation, sex roles, politics, and religion.
Stage 6: Adulthood
Basic Conflict: Intimacy vs. Isolation
Ages: 19-40 years
Important Event: Love Relationships
Summary: The young adult must develop intimate relationships or suffer feelings of isolation.
Born June 15, 1902 in Frankfurt Germany.
Mother and father were not married.
Father was Danish
Mother married Dr. Theodor Homberger and raised Erikson as his own (Erik was 3).
Theodor adopted him in 1911.
Erik was raised Jewish but didn't look it (Tall blonde and blue eyes).
He had 3 half sisters.
All of this made him curious about his identity.
He enrolled in Baden State Art School and traveled Europe.
He then entered art school in Germany.
Then he went to Vienna Psychoanalytic Institute and became certified to teach the Montessori method.
Later he married Joan Serson and had three sons and one daughter.
In 1933 they moved to the U.S. and he worked at Harvard Medical School.
In 1936 he worked at Yale University and in 1939 he did human relations work.
In 1939 he was granted citizenship and changed his name from Homberger to Erikson.
Also in 1939 he worked at the University of California.
Stage 2: Muscular-Anal
Basic Conflict: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
Ages: 1-3 years
Important Event: Toilet Training
Summary: The child's energies are directed toward the development of physical skills, including walking, grasping, and rectal sphincter control. The child learns control but may develop shame and doubt if not handled well.
Stage 4: Latency
Basic Conflict: Industry vs. Inferiority
Ages: 6-12 years
Important Event: School
Summary: The child must deal with demands to learn new skills or risk a sense of inferiority, failure, and incompetence.
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Stage 7: Middle Adulthood
Basic Conflict: Generativity vs. Stagnation
Ages: 40-65 years
Important Event: Parenting
Summary: Each adult must find some way to satisfy and support the next generation.
Integrity vs. Despair
Stage 8: Maturity
Basic Conflict: Integrity vs. Despair
Important Event: Reflection on and acceptance of one's life.
Summary: The culmination is a sense of oneself as one is and of feeling fulfilled.
Erikson's Late Years
In 1950 Erikson published his 8 stages in his book Childhood and Society.
In 1951 he worked at Berkeley.
From 1960-1970 Erikson got a professorship at Harvard.
In 1969 he won the Pulitzer Prize.
In 1980 he got prostate cancer and had other health issues which forced him into full retirement.
He died in 1994, passing peacefully in his sleep.
All 8 Stages