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Augmented Reality in Education

Looking glass into the future
by

Matt Bower

on 7 July 2014

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Transcript of Augmented Reality in Education

The future is in our hands

How can Augmented Reality be most effectively used to promote cognitive development?
How can the networked nature of Augmented Reality be utilised to effectively facilitate and support collaborative learning?
What Augmented Reality design and implementation strategies best support student learning?
How can we best support teacher design thinking to leverage the potentials of Augmented Reality?

A significant research agenda

So many of the educational uses of AR focus on developing lower order thinking skills such as recollection, understanding and application
Critically important to engage higher order thinking capabilities of analysis, evaluation and creativity
Students as designers as a way to engage this…

Importance of developing Higher Order Thinking capabilities

Perfectly situated scaffolding
: providing knowledge at exact time and place of need –increasing cognitive efficiency (e.g. instruction manuals for electronic equipment

Physical transcension
: overcoming physical limitations of our world to scale, manipulate and mix in safe, inexpensive and time effective ways (from molecular to galactic)

Pedagogical affordances of AR

Thought Experiment – What could AR do?

Affordances of Input Devices

Augmented Reality Systems can be defined as those that allow real and virtual objects to co-exist in the same space and be interacted with in real-time (Azuma, 1997)

Augmented Reality enables the seamless compositing of virtual objects onto a real environment in a contextually relevant manner (Billinghurst et al., 2001)

What is Augmented Reality?

Azuma, R. (1997). A survey of augmented reality. Presence, 6(4), 355-385.
Billinghurst, M., Kato, H., & Poupyrev, I. (2001). The magicbook-moving seamlessly between reality and virtuality. Computer Graphics and Applications, IEEE, 21(3), 6-8.
Dunleavy, M., Dede, C., & Mitchell, R. (2009). Affordances and limitations of immersive participatory Augmented Reality simulations for teaching and learning. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 18(1), 7-22.
Kaufmann, H., & Schmalstieg, D. (2003). Mathematics and geometry education with collaborative augmented reality. Computers & Graphics, 27(3), 339-345.
Kerawalla, L., Luckin, R., Seljeflot, S., Woolard, A. (2006). 'Making it real': exploring the potential of augmented reality for teaching primary school science. Virtual Reality, 10(3-4), 163-174. doi: 10.1007/s10055-006-0036-4
Milgram, P., Takemura, H., Utsumi, A., & Kishino, F. (1994). Augmented Reality: A class of displays on the reality-virtuality continuum. In Proceedings of Telemanipulator and Telepresence Technologies, (pp. 2351–2334).
Squire, K., & Jan, M. (2007). Mad City Mystery: Developing scientific argumentation skills with a place-based augmented reality game on handheld computers. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 16(1), 5-29.
References

Integrated Virtual Networks – Silhouette
http://www.ivn.net/demo.html

Blurring of reality-virtuality boundaries

Real-time student data overlays

Face-recognition + student tracking + AR =


ISS Live to find the International Space Station and deduce how and where to dock (http://spacestationlive.nasa.gov)
Potential for integrated uses of AR


SkyView Augmented Reality star viewing application to plot a path to the Moon and Mars (http://www.terminaleleven.com/skyview)

Potential for integrated uses of AR

In search of an alternative sustainable place for humans to live, students could use:
Potential for integrated uses of AR

Speech to text + translation engine + text to speech = Real-time audio translation

Exciting things happen when input matches output

Affordances of Output Devices

Milgram et al. (2004)

Milgram’s Reality-Virtuality Continuum

Why AR will make the WWW seem like a rounding error

Augmented Reality will make the World Wide Web look like a rounding error

http://pollev.com/icemar

Agree or Disagree?

Augmented Reality will make the World Wide Web look like a rounding error

http://pollev.com/icemar

Agree or Disagree?

http://www.flickr.com/photos/leweb3/8243209539/sizes/c/

Organisations competing for users to sign up to their AR channel/s (e.g. advertisers)
Advances in search engine technology that enable more intelligent retrieval of information (such as http://www.wired.com/business/2013/04/kurzweil-google-ai/)
As computer-brainwave interfaces mature our experiences are stored in cloud based neural networks (for elaboration of this concept see http://techcrunch.com/2012/11/25/5-ways-augmented-reality-is-starting-to-get-real/)

Milieu

Blended Synchronous Learning and Blended Reality (http://blendsync.org)

Blurring of reality-virtuality boundaries

Corningware
Devices merging seamlessly into our world

Situated simulations of pasts and futures

3D Models + interactivity + AR =

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bionic_contact_lens

More intelligent input recognition (temperature, smell, voice recognition, gesture detection such as Leap Motion)
More sophisticated output types (haptic, more complex 3D interactive models, scripts to networked devices)
Evolution of output devices (contact lenses)

Anticipating AR tech developments
Planets3D book to ventures to further planets
(https://popartoys.com)
Potential for integrated uses of AR

Spacecraft 3D to simulate Martian data collection
(http://www.nasa.gov/connect/apps.html)
Potential for integrated uses of AR

Transparent Earth to peer through the globe and pick a launch site
(http://www.hogere.com/transparentearth)

Potential for integrated uses of AR

(Squire & Jan, 2007)

Games based learning
– by creating a digital narrative, placing students in a role, providing authentic resources, and embedding contextually relevant information

Pedagogies Supported by AR

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h2OfQdYrHRs

Eg Wordlens: http://wordlens.com/us/

Exciting things happen when input matches output

Fetch Lunch Rush http://pbskids.org/mobile/fetch-lunch-rush.html

AR in Education

Ingress http://ingress.com



AR Games

AR Basketball http://augmentedpixels.com



AR Games

Alien Attack http://www.apptoyz.com/apps/alien-attack



AR Games

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SiC1y_ZjPtw


AR Plane Finder http://my.pinkfroot.com/page/plane-finder-ar-track-live

Location based

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7vfzkFfIK1U

Wikitude http://wikitude.com

Location based

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=riD_UFfLeXI

Ad Sugar http://adsugarmedia.com




Image (Marker) based

String http://poweredbystring.com


Image (Marker) based

Paralax tracking and modelling, combined with Simultaneous Localisation and Mapping (SLAM) technology

Real-time scene reconstruction

Google glass http://www.google.com/glass/start


Devices merging seamlessly into our world

MoonGlobe and MarsGlobe to explore the moon and mars for best places to inhabit (see http://www.midnightmartian.com)

Potential for integrated uses of AR

(Kaufmann & Schmalstieg, 2003)

Inquiry-based learning
– embedding virtual manipulable models within the real world







Pedagogies Supported by AR

(Dunleavy et al, 2009)

Situated learning
– authentic and contextualised learning by embedding educational experiences within the real world and bringing the real world into the classroom





Pedagogies Supported by AR

Instruction manuals

Exciting things happen when input matches output

Zooburst http://zooburst.com

AR in Education

LearnAR http://learnar.org

AR in Education

Sekai Camera http://sekaicamera.com

Location based

Paper4D http://paper4D.com




Image (Marker) based

ICEM 2013 Annual Conference – 1st to 4th October 2013

matt.bower@mq.edu.au

Why Augmented Reality will make the World Wide Web look like a rounding error

Looking glass into the future

Aurasma (http://aurasma.com)
Layar (http://layar.com)
Junaio (http://junaio.com)

AR Systems enabling teachers to become designers

Behaviourist?
Socio-constructivist?
Constructionionist?
Connectivist?



As for any technology, the pedagogical effectiveness depends on the way it is used, not the technology itself

Pedagogies Supported by AR

(Kerawalla et al., 2006)

Constructivism

engage on deeper level with the tasks, concepts and resources to make deep and lasting connections within their knowledge base
Pedagogies Supported by AR

Output augments user’s environment:(screen, speakers
vibrate, flash)

Media returned:
text
image
video
model

Data sent to server
(if required)

Inputs:
camera
microphone
touchpad
GPS
compass
gyroscope
accelerometer
clock

How does AR work?

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oxnKOQkWwF8

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RVPy9hsbKI8


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iMf0ffbddc8


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=92rYjlxqypM

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7G3H3ImCWlE

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aviG5uQ8pHU

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WF2imBz3qAI

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iz4ykMn3UR4


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v1uyQZNg2vE

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6Cf7IL_eZ38


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y9HMn6bd-v8

(start 46secs)
(start 1:55)
(see 2:55)
Introductory
Concepts

Image Based
AR

Location based
AR

AR Games
AR in
Education

Affordances
of AR

Modulating Reality
Pedagogy
and AR

Example:
Integrating AR

Futures
We learning
Examples
of AR
Full transcript