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Augmented Reality in Education

Looking glass into the future

Matt Bower

on 7 July 2014

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Transcript of Augmented Reality in Education

The future is in our hands

How can Augmented Reality be most effectively used to promote cognitive development?
How can the networked nature of Augmented Reality be utilised to effectively facilitate and support collaborative learning?
What Augmented Reality design and implementation strategies best support student learning?
How can we best support teacher design thinking to leverage the potentials of Augmented Reality?

A significant research agenda

So many of the educational uses of AR focus on developing lower order thinking skills such as recollection, understanding and application
Critically important to engage higher order thinking capabilities of analysis, evaluation and creativity
Students as designers as a way to engage this…

Importance of developing Higher Order Thinking capabilities

Perfectly situated scaffolding
: providing knowledge at exact time and place of need –increasing cognitive efficiency (e.g. instruction manuals for electronic equipment

Physical transcension
: overcoming physical limitations of our world to scale, manipulate and mix in safe, inexpensive and time effective ways (from molecular to galactic)

Pedagogical affordances of AR

Thought Experiment – What could AR do?

Affordances of Input Devices

Augmented Reality Systems can be defined as those that allow real and virtual objects to co-exist in the same space and be interacted with in real-time (Azuma, 1997)

Augmented Reality enables the seamless compositing of virtual objects onto a real environment in a contextually relevant manner (Billinghurst et al., 2001)

What is Augmented Reality?

Azuma, R. (1997). A survey of augmented reality. Presence, 6(4), 355-385.
Billinghurst, M., Kato, H., & Poupyrev, I. (2001). The magicbook-moving seamlessly between reality and virtuality. Computer Graphics and Applications, IEEE, 21(3), 6-8.
Dunleavy, M., Dede, C., & Mitchell, R. (2009). Affordances and limitations of immersive participatory Augmented Reality simulations for teaching and learning. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 18(1), 7-22.
Kaufmann, H., & Schmalstieg, D. (2003). Mathematics and geometry education with collaborative augmented reality. Computers & Graphics, 27(3), 339-345.
Kerawalla, L., Luckin, R., Seljeflot, S., Woolard, A. (2006). 'Making it real': exploring the potential of augmented reality for teaching primary school science. Virtual Reality, 10(3-4), 163-174. doi: 10.1007/s10055-006-0036-4
Milgram, P., Takemura, H., Utsumi, A., & Kishino, F. (1994). Augmented Reality: A class of displays on the reality-virtuality continuum. In Proceedings of Telemanipulator and Telepresence Technologies, (pp. 2351–2334).
Squire, K., & Jan, M. (2007). Mad City Mystery: Developing scientific argumentation skills with a place-based augmented reality game on handheld computers. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 16(1), 5-29.

Integrated Virtual Networks – Silhouette

Blurring of reality-virtuality boundaries

Real-time student data overlays

Face-recognition + student tracking + AR =

ISS Live to find the International Space Station and deduce how and where to dock (http://spacestationlive.nasa.gov)
Potential for integrated uses of AR

SkyView Augmented Reality star viewing application to plot a path to the Moon and Mars (http://www.terminaleleven.com/skyview)

Potential for integrated uses of AR

In search of an alternative sustainable place for humans to live, students could use:
Potential for integrated uses of AR

Speech to text + translation engine + text to speech = Real-time audio translation

Exciting things happen when input matches output

Affordances of Output Devices

Milgram et al. (2004)

Milgram’s Reality-Virtuality Continuum

Why AR will make the WWW seem like a rounding error

Augmented Reality will make the World Wide Web look like a rounding error


Agree or Disagree?

Augmented Reality will make the World Wide Web look like a rounding error


Agree or Disagree?


Organisations competing for users to sign up to their AR channel/s (e.g. advertisers)
Advances in search engine technology that enable more intelligent retrieval of information (such as http://www.wired.com/business/2013/04/kurzweil-google-ai/)
As computer-brainwave interfaces mature our experiences are stored in cloud based neural networks (for elaboration of this concept see http://techcrunch.com/2012/11/25/5-ways-augmented-reality-is-starting-to-get-real/)


Blended Synchronous Learning and Blended Reality (http://blendsync.org)

Blurring of reality-virtuality boundaries

Devices merging seamlessly into our world

Situated simulations of pasts and futures

3D Models + interactivity + AR =


More intelligent input recognition (temperature, smell, voice recognition, gesture detection such as Leap Motion)
More sophisticated output types (haptic, more complex 3D interactive models, scripts to networked devices)
Evolution of output devices (contact lenses)

Anticipating AR tech developments
Planets3D book to ventures to further planets
Potential for integrated uses of AR

Spacecraft 3D to simulate Martian data collection
Potential for integrated uses of AR

Transparent Earth to peer through the globe and pick a launch site

Potential for integrated uses of AR

(Squire & Jan, 2007)

Games based learning
– by creating a digital narrative, placing students in a role, providing authentic resources, and embedding contextually relevant information

Pedagogies Supported by AR


Eg Wordlens: http://wordlens.com/us/

Exciting things happen when input matches output

Fetch Lunch Rush http://pbskids.org/mobile/fetch-lunch-rush.html

AR in Education

Ingress http://ingress.com

AR Games

AR Basketball http://augmentedpixels.com

AR Games

Alien Attack http://www.apptoyz.com/apps/alien-attack

AR Games


AR Plane Finder http://my.pinkfroot.com/page/plane-finder-ar-track-live

Location based


Wikitude http://wikitude.com

Location based


Ad Sugar http://adsugarmedia.com

Image (Marker) based

String http://poweredbystring.com

Image (Marker) based

Paralax tracking and modelling, combined with Simultaneous Localisation and Mapping (SLAM) technology

Real-time scene reconstruction

Google glass http://www.google.com/glass/start

Devices merging seamlessly into our world

MoonGlobe and MarsGlobe to explore the moon and mars for best places to inhabit (see http://www.midnightmartian.com)

Potential for integrated uses of AR

(Kaufmann & Schmalstieg, 2003)

Inquiry-based learning
– embedding virtual manipulable models within the real world

Pedagogies Supported by AR

(Dunleavy et al, 2009)

Situated learning
– authentic and contextualised learning by embedding educational experiences within the real world and bringing the real world into the classroom

Pedagogies Supported by AR

Instruction manuals

Exciting things happen when input matches output

Zooburst http://zooburst.com

AR in Education

LearnAR http://learnar.org

AR in Education

Sekai Camera http://sekaicamera.com

Location based

Paper4D http://paper4D.com

Image (Marker) based

ICEM 2013 Annual Conference – 1st to 4th October 2013


Why Augmented Reality will make the World Wide Web look like a rounding error

Looking glass into the future

Aurasma (http://aurasma.com)
Layar (http://layar.com)
Junaio (http://junaio.com)

AR Systems enabling teachers to become designers


As for any technology, the pedagogical effectiveness depends on the way it is used, not the technology itself

Pedagogies Supported by AR

(Kerawalla et al., 2006)


engage on deeper level with the tasks, concepts and resources to make deep and lasting connections within their knowledge base
Pedagogies Supported by AR

Output augments user’s environment:(screen, speakers
vibrate, flash)

Media returned:

Data sent to server
(if required)


How does AR work?












(start 46secs)
(start 1:55)
(see 2:55)

Image Based

Location based

AR Games
AR in

of AR

Modulating Reality
and AR

Integrating AR

We learning
of AR
Full transcript