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School Counseling...a historical perspective
Transcript of School Counseling...a historical perspective
1920's-1940's American School
Counselor Association 3 Steps: "The idea developed of the guidance worker
as a trained professional,
wise in administering and interpreting
for the prediction of vocational and
education success" -Cremin 1. Understand self (aptitudes, abilities, interests, limitations, etc) 2. Knowledge of lines of work (requirements, conditions of success, compensation, prospects, etc) 3. Reason on the relations of these two groups of facts Psychologists:
Instrumentation Higher Education:
Dean of students School Social Workers Mental Health &
Psychiatry Personnel work
in Industry Astrology, phrenology,
phsiognomy, graphology 1953
"The School Counselor"
Magazine 1940's: WW2 National Defense
Education Act 1959 Common school to Progressive School (1890-1910) Father of
a lawyer &
civil Engineer. 1898 Counselor
assigns first school
counselors Jesse B. Davis 1952 Carl Rogers School Counseling....
A Historical Perspective Aristotle, Socrates, masters, physicians, shaman, etc. American Education Reform Frank Parsons "Choosing a Vocation" Industrialization Child labor Immigration Discrimination Emigration individual investigation
objective, standardized instruments
1926: Certification for
Guidance Counselors in NY 1939: "Dictionary of
Occupations Titles" 1942:
Client centered approach
vs. medical or psychoanalytic
approaches Conant argues for
1:250 or 1:300 ratios 1958-1964 Cold war instigates
funding & resources
to encourage gifted
students to enter college
in scientific fields 1960's
disappear & states
take over 1965, 1969, 1976
Elementary and Secondary
Education Act 1980s-1990s
Focus on social issues
not School Counseling
(child abuse, drug abuse
dropout, etc) Carl D. Perkins Vocational Act
1984, 1990, 2006
Federal funding for
guidance and counseling 1995, 1999
1:1,171 (California) The Future of School Counseling 1. Accountability 2. Longitudinal K-12 3. Comprehensive 4. Collaboration/support from teachers, mental health, families, etc. 5. Range of services/interventions 6. Student ratios & responsibilities 7. PROACTIVE