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ANSC 227: Government policy

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Dr. Charlie Apter

on 26 September 2017

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Transcript of ANSC 227: Government policy

first proposed 1857, first passed by Congress 1859, vetoed by President Buchanan

resubmitted 1861, proposed institutions would teach military tactics, engineering, ag

passed in reconfigured form with departure from Union of states opposed

signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln on July 2, 1862

each eligible state received 30,000 acres of federal land for each member of Congress the state had as of the census of 1860

land, or proceeds from its sale, was to establish and fund ag/engineering school(s) which also provided ROTC training

first schools so established were Michigan State College and Penn State University

offer extended to former Confederate states upon end of the Civil War, with further expansion with the law passed in 1890

required each state to show race was not admissions criterion, or else to designate a separate land-grant institution for persons of color

1887, agricultural experiment stations funded under direction of land grant schools

Smith-Lever Act of 1914 began funding of cooperative extension, again under direction of land grant schools
1820, 1825 Ag Committee established, US House and US Senate (respectively)
1862 U.S. Department of Agriculture set up without Cabinet status
1874 Georgia sets up the first State Department of Ag
1889 Department of Ag elevated to Cabinet status
1890, 1891 Meat Inspection Acts
1906 Food and Drug Act; Meat Inspection Act
1933 Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) initiates crop, marketing controls; Farm Credit Act
1939 Food stamp plan begun
1941 National Victory Garden Program launched
1946 National School Lunch Act
1957, 1958 Poultry Inspection Act, Humane Slaughter Act
1964 Food Stamp Act
1968 Wholesome Poultry "Products Act"
1985 Food Security Act establishes the Conservation Reserve Program
1990 Congress passes the Organic Food Production Act, authorizing the U.S. Department of Agriculture to establish a nationwide definition for organic food
2000 USDA unveils organic standards and official organic seal
Government policy

Farm Bill
Extensive, omnibus legislation reauthorized by Congress roughly every five years

controversial; first passed during the Depression

affect many areas (environment, trade, food safety, rural communities, economy)

Contains provisions critical to family farmers, ranchers, and fruit and vegetable growers

2008 Farm Bill ("Food, Conservation and Energy Act of 2008") expired on Sept. 30, 2012

75% of 2008 bill’s funding for nutrition assistance (US [Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, SNAP] and internationally)

expired without a replacement, act was "extended" due to inability of Congress to agree to funding levels for SNAP

New law ("Agricultural Act of 2014")

signed into law by President Obama on Feb. 7, 2014

Land-grant system
Morrill Acts of 1862 and 1890
Farmers are left in the cold....
Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES)
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Markets, not government incentives and controls, should inform farming decisions
Free markets promote food affordability
Subsidies are not necessary for farmers to succeed
Property rights are the cornerstone of American ag
Problematic regulations affecting ag should be fixed or eliminated
The regulatory burden on the ag sector should be minimized and sound regulatory approaches used
Obstacles to ag research and innovation should be removed
Free trade in ag benefits farmers and consumers
Individual dietary decisions should be respected
Ag policy should not promote special interests
10 Guiding Principles for Agriculture Policy:
A Free-Market Vision
Full transcript