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Baroque sculpture

DSMA4 FSARTH1
by

Morteza Yazdanjoo

on 12 December 2017

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Transcript of Baroque sculpture

CARLO MADERNO
Baroque Sculpture
...
In churches, broader naves and sometimes given oval forms
Twisted columns, sometimes simply decorative instead of supportive
Ceiling frescos
The facades consisted of many curves, often using the double curve (in at the sides, out in the middle). Baroque pediments (triangular area between the rooftop and the end of the roofs) were often highly decorated.
Optical Illusions
Abundance of Windows
Tower or Domes
1556 to 30 January 1629
Swiss - italian architect
one of the Fathers of Baroque Architecture
Facade of
Santa Susanna
Facade of
St. Peter's Basilica
Facade of Sant'Andrea
della Valle
FAMOUS SCULPTORS
GIAN LORENZO BERNINI
St. Peter's Baldachin
1598–1680

Leading sculptor of his age

Bernini's work was sensual, and profoundly deep.

Main works of art:
David, The Rape of Proserpina, Apollo and Daphne, Ecstasy of Saint Teresa,
BAROQUE VS ROCOCO
Thank you
Chiaroscuro
a term used in art to describe the difference between light and dark shading often employed to produce three dimensional effects
Tenebrism, increased contrast is used to accentuate particular figures or to increase dramatic emotion.
The Deposition of Christ
By Carvaggio
Sacred Love Versus
Profane Love
by Giovanni Baglione
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The word baroque is derived from the Spanish word "barroco", or French "baroque", all of which refer to a "
rough or imperfect pearl
"

Heinrich Wölfflin, in

Principles of Art History

(1915), points out that “baroque is neither a rise nor a decline from classic, but a totally different art.”
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Historical Context

- Influenced by
scientific discoveries
(Copernicus proving heliocentrism)

-
Religion
(Roman-Catholic church was influential patron of the arts)

-
Politics
(absolute monarchies of France & Spain prompted creation of works that reflected
grandeur of the kings
)
Scientific Revolution/Discoveries
- New concepts of physics and astronomy introduced by Galileo, Kepler, and Newton introduced new obsessions for Baroque artists. For example, the awareness of space and light were constantly experimented with.

-
Distortion and disproportion
, rather than mathematically precise depictions, were intentionally used to emphasize certain anatomical features and themes.
Inspired by the Counter-Reformation
- Restore Roman Catholicism's predominance and centrality.

- A desire by Catholic patrons to create art and architecture that would
be impressive, engaging and would seduce people back to the church & make worship more appealing
.

- Baroque painting and sculpture had a tendency to be exceedingly
emotional, more dynamic
; identified as an art of passion and theatrical displays.
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- In painting and sculpture this was achieved by means of highly developed
naturalistic illusionism
, usually heightened by dramatic lighting effects, creating an unequaled sense of
theatricality, energy, and movement of forms
.

- Such illusionistic forms of art, along with the profusion of multi-color decorative paintings and sculpture
stressed the power and opulence of the monarch

and inspired devotion and faith within the Church.
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- Painters typically portrayed a strong sense of movement, using
swirling spirals
and
upward diagonals
, and strong sumptuous color schemes, in order to dazzle and surprise. New techniques of
tenebrism
and
chiaroscuro
were developed to enhance atmosphere.

-
Tenebrism
; increased contrast is used to accentuate particular figures or to increase dramatic emotion.

-
Chiaroscuro
; the difference between light and dark shading often employed to produce three dimensional effects
Judith beheading Holofernes
by Caravaggio
realism
defects
violence
strong emotions
strong contrasts between light and dark
(
chiaroscuro
)
Realism as an integral aspect

- This period was known for its artistic style that used exaggerated motion and clearly interpreted detail to express drama, tension, exuberance, as well as the influence of painting, architecture, literature and many other arts that were present in this era. Baroque style featured intense
lighting, emotion, and release of restraint and tension
.

- "With technical brilliance, the baroque artist achieved a remarkable
harmony
where in painting, sculpture, and architecture were brought together in new
spatial relationships, both real and illusionary
, often with spectacular visual effects" (Coulmbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 2014).

- The seventeenth century, a time of frequent
battles throughout Europe
( largely the result of the divisions in the Catholic Church after the Reformation)

- Baroque artworks give a sense of this turmoil: their theatrical, dynamic compositions are marked by dramatic movement and light.

- A tendency towards the pictorial, which led to the rejection of all straight lines. Everything that was previously
horizontal was curved, canted or chamfered
; even the column, the original form of the support, was altered by Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini, the grand master of baroque architecture, to become
sinuous
and
twisted
.
Characteristics
Energy & Tension

Among the general characteristics of baroque art is a sense of movement, energy, and tension (whether real or implied). Strong contrasts of light and shadow enhance the dramatic effects of many paintings and sculptures.

Intense Spirituality

Intense spirituality is often present in works of baroque art; in the Roman Catholic countries, for example, scenes of
ecstasy, martyrdom, or miraculous apparition

are common.

Infinite Space

Infinite space is often suggested in baroque paintings or sculptures; throughout the Renaissance and into the baroque period, painters sought a grander sense of space and truer depiction of perspective in their works.
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-Very
intense feelings
.
The figures showed their emotions.

-
Movement, energy
and
vitality
.
The figures were often entangled in complex compositions.

- They had
religious
and
mythological
themes.

-
Baroque sculpture added extra-sculptural elements, for example, concealed lighting, or fused sculpture and architecture to create a transformation experience for the vie
wer.
Baroque Sculpture
Movement
figures are in mid-motion, mouth open, or yielding to the touch of another.

large works

(particularly those by Bernini)- middle of the floor or at a slight distance from a wall.

s
culptors employ
negative space

viewers can contemplate a multiplicity of angles.

Featured popular characters from classical Greco-Roman Myths
Adapting the classical grandeur of Renaissance sculpture and the dynamic energy of the Mannerist period, Bernini forged a new, distinctly Baroque conception for religious and historical sculpture, powerfully imbued with
dramatic realism, stirring emotion and dynamic, theatrical compositions.

Bernini's sculpture groups and portraits manifest “a command of the human form in motion and a technical sophistication”.

He was commissioned to work by popes and kings & in France he was called “The Dictator of Taste”.
- The transformation of Rome into a baroque city was impacted mostly by Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini. He completed this bronze canopy held up by four twisting columns. This structure, known as Baldacchino, is at the very heart of the church, above the tomb of St. Peter and below the dome.

- The main concern is the representation of motion as the Baldachin of the altar of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome
Cornaro Chapel, in Sant a Maria della Vittoria, the Ecstasy of Saint Teresa
- The subject of this sculpture is St. Teresa's visions of God (angel descending with an arrow and plunging it into her)


- Teresa is having visions and feeling pain that she attributes to an angel stabbing her in the heart with an arrow.


- Figures seem to float in space; rays of god's light illuminate the scene from behind;
Teresa's pose suggests Sexual exhaustion; (from spiritual ecstasy)


- Unmistakable mingling of spiritual and physical passion, swooning back on a cloud while the smiling angel aims his arrow
- The

passionate drama of Bernini's depiction of Saint Teresa correlated with the idea that the re-creation of spiritual experience would encourage devotion and piety.

- This is another perfect example of the theatrical effect artists liked to use during this period.
The Rape of Proserpina
Proserpina being seized and taken to the underworld by Pluto
- The twisted
contrapposto or figura serpentinata
pose allows the simultaneous depiction of the abduction (as seen from the left, with Pluto striding to grasp her), the arrival in the underworld (as seen from the front, he appears triumphantly bearing his trophy in his arms) and her prayer to her mother Ceres to return to the real world 6 months a year (as seen from the right one, with Proserpina's tears, the wind blowing her hair, and
Cerberus
barking).

- The texture of the skin, the flying ropes of hair, the tears of Persephone and above all the yielding flesh of the girl.
Proserpina’s lips are slightly opened, as if she were screaming and begging for help. Upon closer examination, one would notice the delicately crafted marble tears that look as though they are literally dripping down her face.
Pushing against Pluto's face Proserpina's hand creases his skin, while his fingers sink into the flesh of his victim.
Apollo and Daphne
- Depicts Climax of the story of
Apollo and Daphne in Ovid's
Metamorphoses

- In the story, Apollo, the god of light, scolded Eros, the god of love, for playing with adult weapons. In retribution, Eros wounded Apollo with a golden arrow that induced him to fall madly in love at the sight of
Daphne, a water nymph sworn to perpetual virginity
, who, in addition, had been struck by Eros with a lead arrow which immunized her from Apollo's advances

- The sculpture depicts the moment when Apollo finally captures Daphne, yet she has implored her father, the river god, to destroy her beauty and repel Apollo's advances by
transforming her into a laurel tree.
This statue succeeds at various levels: it depicts the event and also represents an elaborate conceit of sculpture.

- Tracks the metamorphoses of a
person changing into lifeless vegetation
; in other words, while a sculptor's art is to change inanimate stone into animated narrative, this sculpture narrates the opposite, the moment a woman becomes a tree.
David
- The statue of David (1623, Galleria Borghese, Rome) captures the biblical hero in the climax of his action.

- Depicts David as he throws the stone that will allow him to
defeat Goliath

- Expanding upon Michelangelo's fascination with the human body, Bernini added
torsion to create a dynamic figure
that extends into the viewer's space.

- Expresses how powerful human body is and show strong emotion (his face)

- movement, energy, vitality
Comparing Davids
Donatello
(Early Italian Renaissance)
very slight contrapposto, neutral facial expression, depicts the body of a child very well
Michelangelo
(High Italian Renaissance)
Michelangelo's motionless, idealized David holds a rock in one hand and a sling in the other, contemplating the battle
Bernini (Italian Baroque)
More dramatic, dynamic, facials very dramatic and violent looking, strong contrapposto
"An amazing contrast of tenderness and cruelty"
Bust of King Louis XIV
Chair of Saint Peter
- Most of baroque sculpture in Spain was commissioned by the Church. It consisted of altarpieces and images for churches and for
Holy Week processions
.

- Most of the images were made of polychrome or wood

- The most important sculptors were Pedro de Mena, Alonso Cano, and Gregorio Fernandez.
The Penitent Magdalene by
P. de Mena (1644)
- Mary Magdalene expressing pain, holding the crucifix in the left hand and the right one in the chest
Saint John the Baptist by Alonso Cano (1634)
- Francois Girardon (1628 –1715)

- Pierre Puget (1620–1694)
Francois Girardon
- He worked for King Louis XIV

- Sculptor of Apollo and the nymphs of Thetis

- One of his most important works is
Louis XIV on Horse

Girardon
-
Louis XIV on Horse
-1699

-Destroyed during the 1792 revolution, only few fragments survive.

PUGET- Milo of Croton
-
Milo
was a Greek athlete several times champion of the Olympic and Pythian games. As an old man, he wished to test his vigor by
splitting a tree trunk that he found already cleft. His hand remained caught in the stump and he was devoured by wolves
.

- Puget replaced these animals with the nobler figure of a lion and created a composition imbued with baroque
passion and drama
.

- Milo's body is writhing in pain and his flesh appears to be shuddering under the chisel's touch.

- A meditation on the human condition; Human glory is ephemeral
Death of Adonis (from Ovid's
Metamorphoses
) by Mazzuola
Fountain of the 4 rivers in Piazza Navona by
Bernini

- Fountains were among the principal types of baroque public monuments, and those by Bernini are among the most outstanding examples.

- Fountain of
the Four Rivers
(1648-1651) in Rome's Piazza Navona startles the viewer with its
mammoth statues and obelisk balanced almost precariously on ledges from which gush dramatic cascades of water.

- The four rivers represented in this art work are the Danube River in Europe, the Nile River in Africa, the Ganges in Asia, and the Plata in Americas.
Rococo
As the final phase of Baroque, Rococo art features a sense of dynamism and extravagance. While Baroque art is overtly dramatic (and often violent), however, Rococo works are gentle and playful. Rococo sculpture, which flourished primarily in France, was especially well-suited to figurines.
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Cerberus the "hound of Hades"
Thank you
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