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Transcript of The internet
> every computer can be connected directly with
every other computer
> traditional peer-to-peer networks consists of 2 or
more general-purpose personal computers
> every computers capable of sending and receiving
information CompactFlash Internet Networking
Nor Izzati Zakaria & Fazirah Sabar What is
networking? *a group of computers
and other devices that are
connected by some
types of transmission media. *can be as small as 2
*can be as large as
several thousand computers
connected communicate trough :
* copper wires
* radio waves
* satellite links WHY USE NETWORK ? * better than using a stand-alone
* enable multiple users to share
devices and data
* save money
* save time
* allow us to manage resources
on multiple computers from a
central location Advantages of peer-to-peer network : * simple to configure
* often less expensive to set up and maintain Disadvantages of peer-to-peer network * not very flexible
* not necessarily secure
* not practical for connecting more than
a handful of computers common way to share resources on a peer-to-peer network : > modifying the file sharing controls
via the computer's operating system
> for example, create a directory on your
computer's hard disk called "ShareDocs" > then, congigure the directory to allow all networked computers to read its file Client / Server Networks Server - way of designing a network is to use a central computer
Clients - to facillate communication and resource sharing between other computers on the network
workstation - clients take the form of personal computers
Client / Server Network - a network that uses a server to enable clients to share data, data storage space, and devices > every computer on a client/server network acts as a client or a server
> clients/server network do not share their resources directly with each other
client/server network communicate through connectivity devices ( e.g : switches or routers ) To function as a server, a computer must be running an NOS ( network operating system )
NOS is a software to :
> manage data and other resources for a number
> ensure that only authorized users access the
> control which type of files a user can open and read
> restrict when and from where users can access the network
> dictate which rules computers will use to communicate
> supply applications to clients Examples of popular network operating systems:
> variations form of UNIx and Linux
> Microsoft Windows Server 2003 or Server 2008
> Mac OS X Server
> Windows XP
> Windows Vista Advantages :
o user log on accounts and password for anyone on a server-based network can be assigned in
o access to multiple shared resources can be centrally granted to a single user of groups or
o problems on the network can be monitored and fixed from one location
o servers are optimized to handle heavy processing loads
o dedicated to handling requests from clients, enabling faster response time
o servers can connect more than a handful of computers on a network
o easy to manage
o more secure and more powerful than peer-to-peer network LANs, MANs, and WANs LAN ( local area network ) :
- a network of computers and other
devices that is confined to a relatively
MAN ( metropolitan area network ) :
-a network that is larger than a LAN and
connect clients and servers from
WAN ( wide area network ) :
- a network that connect 2 or more
geographically distinct LANs or MANs resources sharing on a client/server network HOW NETWORK
ARE USED ? File and Print services File services - capability of a server to share data files, applications, and disk storage space
File server - server that provides file services
> data stored at a central location is typically more secure
Print services - share printers across a network
> saves time and money
> a high capacity of printer can handle the printing tasks of an entire department Access Services > allow remote users to connect to the network
> allow staff from other organizations to help diagnose a network problem
> from a remote locations :
> users can print files to shared printers
> log on to hosts
> retrieve mails from an internal databases Communication Services example : e-mail, telephone, video, fax, cell phone, personal digital assistant ( e.g : Blackberry ) the oldest network communication used is e-mail.
Mail servers can do :
> intercept or filter unsolicited e-mail ( spam )
> find objectionable content in e-mails and perform functions
> route messages according to particular rules
> provide a web based client for checking email
> schedule e-mail transmission, retrieval, storage, and main tenance functions
> communicate with mail servers on other networks Becoming a networking professional Developing your soft-skills > customer relations
> oral and written communications
> leadership abilities Finding Job in Networking > search in the web
> read the newspaper
> visit a career center
> attend career fairs
> enlist a recruiter Joining Professional Associations > connect you with people
> offer its own publications
> offer technical workshop and conferences
> offer free software
> offer prerelease software
> offer access to expensive hardware labs example :
> Association for Computing Machinery
> Association for Information Technology Professionals
> IEEE Computer Society
> Network Professional Association
> Women in Technology International ( WITI ) Type of Network Network Hardware N ....--->.... Network
I ....--->.... Interface
Cs ....--->.... Cards --> Also called network adapters or network cards.
--> Connectivity devices that enable a workstation, server, printer, or other node to receive and transmit data over the network media.
--> Nearly all NICs contain a data transceiver and belong to both the Physical Layer and Data Link layer of the OSI model because they issue data signals to a wire or into atmosphere and assemble or disassemble data frames. They also interpret physical addressing information to ensure data is delivered to its proper destination.
They perform the routines that determine which node has the right to transmit data over a network at any given instant- CSMA/CD on an Ethernet network. Many NICs can also perform
prioritization, network management,
buffering, and traffic-filtering functions Types of NCIs --> The access method
--> Network transmission speed
--> Connector interfaces
--> Type of compatible motherboard or device
--> Manufacture What is Internal
Bus Standards? A computer's bus is the circuit, or signaling pathway, used by the motherboard to transmit data to the computer's components, including its memory, processor, hard disk, and NIC. * Buses differ to their capacity.
* The capacity of a bus is defined principally by the width of its data path (expressed in bits) and its clock speed (expressed in MHz) A computer's bus can be expanded to include devices other than those found on the motherboard which are contains expansion slots, or openings with multiple electrical contacts, that allowed devices such as NICs, modems, or sound cards to connect to the computer's expanded bus. * The devices are found on a circuit board
called an expansion card or expansion board.
* Inserting an expansion board into an expansion slot establishes an electrical connection between the expansion board and the motherboard.
* Thus, the devices connected to the expansion board becomes connected to the computer's main circuit and part of its bus. By far, the most popular expansion board NIC is one that uses a PCI bus. PCI (Peripheral component Interconnect) is a 32- or 64- bit bus with clock speeds rated at 33-, 66- or 133- MHz whose maximum data transfer rate is 1 Gbps. A PCI bus is characterized by a shorter connector length and a much faster data transmission capability than previous bus types such as ISA (Industry Standard Architecture) Another advantage to PCI adapters is that they work with both PCs and Macintosh computers, allowing an organization to standardize on one type of NIC for use with all of its workstation. Peripheral Bus Standards Some peripheral devices, such as
modems or NICs, are attached to
the computer's bus externally
rather than internally. PCMCIA (Personal Computer
Memory Card International
Association), USB, CompactFlash,
or FireWire (IEEE 1394) slots can
all be used to connect peripheral
such as NICs Advantage Their simple
installation. 1989 = a group of PC system
and computer manufacturers formed
the Personal Computer Memory Card International Association (PCMCIA) 1990= The PCMCIA group
developed CardBus CardBus specifies a 32-bit interface running at
33 MHZ, which matches the PCI expansion board standard. 2003= it released the ExpressCard standard Allows many different external devices to connect to portable computers through a 26-pin interface, and offers data transfer rates of 250 Mbps in each direction (USB)
Universal Serial Bus --> Is a standard interface used to connect multiple types of peripherals, including modems, mice, audio players and NICs. --> USB adapters may follow one of two USB standards: USB 1.1 or USB 2.0. The primary different between the two standards is speed. FireWire --> Can connect most any type of peripheral.
--> It also can connect two or more computers on a small network using a bus topology (linking one computer to another in a daisy-chain fashion.
--> On such network, FireWire supports a maximum of 63 devices per segment, allows for up 4.5 meters between nodes, and the chain of FireWire linked computers can extend to farther than 72 meters from end to end. --> Connecter come in two varities 4 pin 6 pin The 6 pin connector contain two pins that can be used to supply power to peripheral.
It also the one most frequently used for interconnecting computers. Repeaters and Hubs - Repeaters are the simplest type of connectivity devices that regenerate a digital signal.
- Operate in the Physical layer of OSI model and, therefore have no means to interpret the data transmit.
- Limited not only in function, but also in scope. It contain one input port and one output port, so it is capable only for receiving and repeating a single data stream.
-The advantages to using a repeaters is that allows us to extend a network inexpensively. - A hub is a repeater with more than one output port.
- Typically contains multiple data ports into which the patch cables for network nodes are connected.
- Hub operate at the Physical layer of OSI model.
- Accepts signals from transmitting node and repeats those signals to all other connected nodes in a broadcast fashion.
- Most hub also contain one port (uplink port), allows the hub to connect to another hub or other connectivity devices. i) Passive Hubs - repeat signals
ii) Intelligent Hubs (also called as managed hubs) - possess internal processing capabilities
iii) Stand-alone hubs (workgroup hubs)- from their own small network. BRIDGES > Devices that connect two network segments by analyzing incoming frames and making decision about where to direct them. > Operate at the Data Link Layer of the OSI model. > Look likes repeaters, have a single input and output pot, also differ from repeaters in that they can interpret physical addressing information. Advantages using bridges > When using bridges over repeaters and hubs, bridges are protocol independent.
> Can move data rapidly than traditional routers.
> They can extend an Ethernet network without further extending a collision domain, or segment. Switches > Switches are connectivity devices that subdivide a network into smaller logical pieces, or segments.
> Traditional switches operate at the Data Link layer of OSI model while modern switches can operate at Layer 3 or even Layer 4 > Switches can make better use of limited bandwidth and prove more cost-efficient than bridges as they have multiple ports.
> Each port on the switches acts like a bridge, and each device connected to a switch effectively receives its own dedicated channel. Provide at least
two advantages Better security Better performance > Isolate one
device's traffic. > Switches provide separate channels for every device, performance stands to gain. Disadvantages of switches > They can become overwhelmed by continuous, heavy traffic.
> The switch cannot prevent data loss. Switching Methods Cut-Trough Mode Store-and-Forward Mode > Reads a frame's header and decides where to forward the data before it receives the entire packet. > Reads the entire data frame into its memory and checks it for accuracy before transmitting the information. > Can detect runts, or erroneously shorted packets. > More appropriate for larger LAN environments because they do not propagate data errors. > However, that runts are only one type of data flaw.
> Cannot detect corrupt packets, indeed, they may increase the number of errors found on the network by propagating flawed packets. > Most significant advantage is its speed. However it become insignificant if the switch is flooded with traffic.
> Best suited to small workgroup in which speed is important and the relatively low number of devices minimizes the potential for errors. > Can also transfer data between segments running different transmission speed. Routers > A router is a multiport connectivity device that directs data between nodes on a network.
> Can integrate LANs and WANs running at different transmission speeds using a variety protocols.
> When a router receives an incoming packet, it reads the packet's logical addressing information.
> Operate at the Network layer 3 of the OSI model.
> They can be devices dedicated to rounting or they can be off the shelf computers configured to perform routing services. The Characteristic and Functions > Not only can routers keep track of the locations of certain nodes on the network, as switches can but they also determine the shortest, fastest path between two nodes. > A typical routers has an internal processor, an operating system, memory, input and output jacks for different types of network connectors and usually a management console interface. > All routers can do the following :
- Connect dissimilar networks.
- Interpret Layer 3 addressing and other information
- Determine the best path for data to follow from point A to point B.
- Reroute traffic if a primary path is down but another path is available. > Routers may perform any of the following optional functions :
- Filter out broadcast transmission to alleviate network congestion.
- Prevent certain types of traffic from getting to a network, enabling customized segregation and security.
- Support simultaneous local and remote connectivity.
- Provide high network fault tolerance through redundant components such as power supplies or network interface.