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U.S. Imperialism into the 1920's

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Clint Kovach

on 30 January 2015

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Transcript of U.S. Imperialism into the 1920's

U.S. Imperialism into the 1920's
design by Dóri Sirály for Prezi
Imperial
America
Progressivism
Good Neighbors
World War I
1920's
One-Crop Economy, Deflation, Low Prices, Wheat Competition in Argentina and Russia, Railroad Prices, Corporate trusts
1867 –
The Grange Movement
(Oliver Kelly) – enhance the lives of isolated farmers through social, educational, and fraternal activity
The Grange Movement opened co-op stores, warehouses, and grain elevators, organized politically (Wabash decisions 1886 ICC)
A
Farmer’s Alliance
was formed in the 1870s to socialize farming, but failed to include blacks (half of the farming population) – the Populist were born
Problems of the Farmer
Populism – a movement to increase farmers’ political power and to work for legislation in their interest (People’s Party – Populist)
Populists called for nationalization of the railroads, telephones, and telegraph; a graduated income tax, free and unlimited coinage of silver (inflation) and a “sub-treasury” (a govt. group providing loans to farmers to store crops until prices rose)

Populist and farmers protested economic and political oppression by the government, due to the rising unemployment rate
Pullman Strike –

organized by
Eugene V. Debs
(a labor leader and Socialist) in which the Pullman Palace Car Company cut wages by 1/3 but maintained housing rent prices
Workers went on strike, in places violently; the govt. dispatched troops to break the strike stating it was disrupting transit of the US mail (Debs was sentenced to 6 months in jail for not ceasing the strike when ordered by the court)
Panic of 1893
“You shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns, you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold"
“Cross of Gold”
Election of 1896 – McKinley (Rep) wanted to remain on the gold standard; while W.J. Bryan (Dem) wanted unlimited coinage of silver (inflation – more money in the system)
The defeat of Bryan (who had Populist, farmer, rural support) is the final serious effort by agrarians to win the presidency
Gold found in Alaska, Canada, South Africa, and Australia helped inflation at the turn of the century
1875 – US exempted Hawaii from a sugar tariff
1887 – US used Pearl Harbor as a military base
1893- upset over a Hawaiian import tariff, the US military surrounded Queen Liliuokalani palace until the white minority overthrew the government
1893 - President Cleveland refused annexation stating Hawaii had been wronged
Hawaii
“You furnish the pictures and I’ll furnish the war."
1878 – the Cuban rebellion against Spain collapsed, many Cubans fled to the US (Jose Marti)
Yellow Journalism – often exaggerated stories in newspapers to gather support or boost sales

William R. Hearst – NY World
Joseph Pulitzer – NY Journal
Imperial Actions
1897 - Pres. McKinley sent the Maine to Havana to evacuate Americans from Cuba
Feb 1898 – the Maine exploded in Havana; the press blamed Spain (underwater mine)
Spanish-American War
Under political pressure Pres. McKinley finally declared war on Spain (Apr 1898) “Remember the Maine, to hell with Spain”
Teller Amendment – declared once the U.S. had overthrown Spanish misrule, it would give Cuban’s their freedom
Assistant Secretary of the Navy Theodore Roosevelt ordered Commodore George Dewey to sail to Manila in the Philippines
The U.S. fleet destroyed all 10 Spanish ships in Manila, losing 0 American solder to 400 Spanish, U.S. troops with
Filipino insurgents
(
Emilio Aguinaldo
),
removed all Spanish resistance
Spanish – American War
“Rough Riders” – a volunteer cavalry group made up of cowboys, miners and westerns
2nd in command – Lt. Col. Teddy Roosevelt – use political pull to by-pass physical requirement – had 12 pairs of glasses on his person
The “Rough Riders” and 2 all black regiments and captured San Juan Hill as well as El Caney
U.S. naval victory in Santiago (500 Spanish dead to 1 American) lead to the U.S. invasion of Puerto Rico
Rough Riders
July 3, 1898 – the fleeing Spanish fleet was destroyed by the waiting American Navy
Aug 1898 – Spain and the US agreed to a cease fire
80% of the U.S. Army was sick with malaria, typhoid, dysentery, and yellow fever (US deaths - 400 dead from bullets / 5,000+ dead from disease)
By the end of the war the US occupied the Philippines, Guam, Cuba, and Puerto Rico
Treaty of Paris 1899 – Cuba became independent, Puerto Rico and Guam became US territory and $20 million was paid to Spain for the Philippines
Spanish – American War
Foraker Act – made Puerto Rico a territory, but PR were not US citizens and had no rights but Congress could pass any laws they wanted
1917 PR became citizens / 1947 PR could elect their own governor (some self-govt.)
Platt Amendment 1901 – Cuba could not make treaties w/ other countries, US was allowed to open a naval base (Guantanamo Bay), and the US could intervene to protect Cuba
Governing Cuba / Puerto Rico
Filipino leader Emilio Aguinaldo
ordered his rebels to attack Americans
Filipinos were put into concentration camps to separate rebels from civilians
1901 – Aguinaldo was captured and ordered his rebel to end the fighting
Education, health, and transportation reforms started to strengthen the economy and win the people (Taft) (1946 Philippines Independence)
Filipino Rebellion
Election 1900 – McKinley vs. William Jennings Bryant (anti-imperialist) (McKinley reelected)
1901 McKinley assassinated (T. Roosevelt VP)
Teddy Roosevelt was a strong willed, outspoken, war hero, imperialist
Sphere of Influence – an area where a foreign nation controls economic development
Open Door Policy in China – all countries should be allowed to trade w/ China equally, no partition

Boxer Rebellion – anti-western Chinese who rose to expel “foreign devils” for China
New American Diplomacy
As other nations built larger armies a Social Darwinist argument of only the strongest nations will survived pushed the US to expand
Anglo-Saxonism – the US destiny to spread its superior civilization to the world’s “backwards” peoples (Josiah Strong)
Alfred Mahan 1890

The Influence of Sea Power upon History
, argued control of the sea was key to world dominance.
Rise of Populist
British imperialists found an friend in the U.S., the Germans were envious of U.S. gains, and Latin American countries were suspicious of U.S. greed
The U.S. became a Far East power by taking the Philippine Islands
Mahan’s Sea Power Theory held true as the U.S expanded its naval holdings
Anti-Imperialist sentiments grew in the U.S. politically and socially
Roosevelt believed to displaying the US military power
“speak softly and carry a big stick”
US offered $10 million+$250,000 per year to Colombia for a 6 mile wide zone to build a canal through Panama - Colombia said "NO"
Panamanians staged an uprising
Roosevelt sent the Navy to keep Colombia from interfering (“cowboy diplomacy”)
TR was 1st president to leave the US for foreign soil
New American Diplomacy
1904 Panama Canal – 10 yrs to build, $390 million, covers 50 miles, 5,609 people died during construction
Panama Canal
1904 Roosevelt Corollary – the US would intervene in Latin America when necessary to maintain economic and political stability in the western hemisphere to keep troublesome powers on the other side of the Atlantic (Monroe Doctrine)
TR forced through an accord an end to the Russo-Japanese War (TR received Nobel Peace Prize)
Russia upset over U.S. involvement, Japan felt that is did not receive proper compensation
1890-1920 – the
Progressive Era
; a political movement w/ specific sets of reforms
Progressives
believed industrialization had created social problems (poor working class)
Progressives
believed the govt. should regulate business and use scientific advancements to benefit society as well as industry
Muckrakers – journalist who investigated social conditions and political corruption, Ida Tarbell (Standard Oil), Jacob Riis (immigrants), Upton Sinclair (meat industry), Phillips (Senate), Dreiser (Profiteers)
Progressives
pushed for child labor laws, workman’s comp, building fire codes, zoning laws (how land is used), and standards for sanitation, size, air, fire and light for buildings
Muller v. Oregon 1908 - upheld labor laws and working hours for women
Socialism – idea that govt. should own and operate industry for the community (Eugene V. Debs)
Progressive Health and Business Reforms
Roosevelt regulated large trust while not disrupting economic efficiency
Hepburn Act – gave the ICC power to regulate railroad rates
Pure Food and Drug Act 1906 – prohibited the manufacture, sale, or shipment of impure or falsely labeled food and drugs (
The Jungle
)
Newlands Reclamation Act – use of federal funds to pay for irrigation and land development projects
Business Regulation

“Trust Buster”
– Roosevelt’s nickname after a Supreme Court case (US v. Northern Securities Company) broke up a large railroad trust
Roosevelt believed there were “good” trusts and “bad” trusts (public consciences vs. greed and power)
TR broke up the meat, sugar, fertilizer and others to show the federal government not private businesses ruled the country
Roosevelt protected 125 million acres of park land, created 5 national parks, and 51 wildlife reservations
End of the Roosevelt Era
William Taft became president through Roosevelt's endorsement
Taft does as much or more than TR in the form of land conservation and broke up more trusts (Standard Oil and U.S. Steel)
Taft did not have the personality to succeed (said to have “foot in mouth” disease)
Dollar Diplomacy – after Roosevelt, Taft encouraged corporations and investors to put capital into foreign areas of strategic concern such as the Far East and Latin America
The $ replaces the stick
Taft as President
Candidates
Conservative Republicans backed W.H. Taft
Progressive Party (Bull Moose Party) was created for Teddy Roosevelt
Bull Moose Party – campaigned for women’s suffrage, social welfare, minimum wage, and social insurance
Democrats nominated Woodrow Wilson
Wilson’s plan of “New Freedom” called for regulated monopolies (freedom over efficiency), banking reforms, and tariff reduction (placed economic faith in competition)
Election of 1912
Wilson was cold and standoffish, he looked down on people of a “lesser mind” and he was inflexible once his mind was set
Wilson set out to control
“the triple wall of privilege” – tariffs, banks, and trusts
Underwood Tariff Bill significantly reduced import fees and the 16th Amendment allowed for a collection of taxes on incomes over $3,000 (just above the average)
Wilson Years - Tariffs
Wilson Years - Banks
Federal Reserve System – local banks keep a portion of their deposits in a regional bank, run by Federal Reserve Board (FRB)
FRB sets interest rates (the amount reserve banks can charge other banks)
This indirectly controls the interest rate of the nation and amount of money in circulation
12 Regional Federal Reserve Districts are created
Federal Trade Commission (FTC) – created to monitor and investigate American business involved in interstate commerce
Federal Reserve System
Clayton Anti-Trust Act 1914 – extended the Sherman Act to include price discrimination, interlocking directorates, exempted labor and agricultural unions from anti-trust persecution and legalized strikes and peaceful picketing
Federal Farm Loan Act 1916 – authorized loans on the security of staple crops
Workman’s Compensation Act 1916 – granted assistance to civil service employees during periods of disability
Wilson’s progressivism fell short for African- Americans; actually accelerating segregation into federal bureaucracy
Wilson Years - Trusts
Latin American regarded Wilson as a
“moral imperialist”
after his intervention in the Nicaragua, Haiti, DR, Virgin Islands and Mexico
Victoriano Huerta seized power in Mexico, leading to millions to flee to the U.S.
Wilson refused to acknowledged the Huerta govt. (instead arming rebels – Venstiano Carranza and Pancho Villa against Huerta)
Carranza succeeded to the presidency after Huerta’s govt. collapsed (with pressure from within as well as Argentina, Brazil, and Chile)
Pancho Villa challenged Carranza while “punishing gringos,” killing more than 40 Americans in raids on New Mexico
Moralistic Diplomacy
Wilson sent General John Pershing with a few thousand troops after Villa but he was never able to capture him (Pershing recalled 1917)
As war broke out in Europe 1914, Wilson proclaimed American neutrality
Both Allied and Central Power wooed the U.S. with England controlling transatlantic cables and close cultural, linguistic, and, economic ties while some 11 million American immigrants had blood ties to the Central Powers
Americans overall hoped to stay out of the war
Started due to industrial growth, nationalism, an alliance system and Archduke Ferdinand’s death
Fighting broke out between
Central Powers: Germany and Austria-Hungary
and
Allied Powers: England, France, and Russia
Propaganda – information designed to influence opinion
England used propaganda to try and win American support
World War I
Lusitania 1915 – British passenger ship (carrying weapons) sunk by the Germans killing 1,200 (128 Americans); seen as terrorism rather than act of war
Wilson negotiated w/ Germany after the sinking of the Lusitania, Arabic, and Sussex rather than go to war –
Sussex Pledge – Germany promised not to sink any more merchant ships w/o warning
Election of 1916 – Wilson is reelected thanks to his peace efforts and keeping soldiers at home (“He kept us out of war”)
America at Home during WWI
US Enters World War I
Feb-March 1917 – German resumed unrestricted submarine warfare sinking 6 American vessels
1917 Zimmerman Telegram – German ambassador Zimmerman telegraphed Mexico proposing if they allied w/ Germany against the US, Mexico would regain its “lost territory” in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona
American now felt with the Telegram as well as the Bolshevik overthrow of Russia war in preservation of democracy was necessary
April 6, 1917 – US declares war on Germany
Germany did not believe the US could raise and transport an army before the Allies collapsed
1. Abolish secret treaties
2. Freedom of the Seas
3. Removal of Economic barriers among nations
4. Reduction of armament burdens
5. Adjustment of colonial claims in the interest of natives
6. Poland should be given sea access and independence
7. Return lost territory to Russia
8. Guarantee of Belgium’s independence
9. Restoration of Alsace-Lorraine to France
10. Readjustment of Italian frontiers
11. Austria-Hungary should have autonomous development
12. Balkan states should be rearranged along historical lines of nationality
13. Turkey’s independence should be preserved
14. Create a general association of nations with power to guarantee territorial integrity and sovereignty (League of Nations)
Wilson’s Fourteen Points
George Creel – head of the Committee on Public Information (CPI), his job was to “sell” America on the war and the “sell” the world on Wilson’s ideas and goals
The CPI employed 150,000 people spreading pro-Allied propaganda while degrading the Germans (Songs: Over There)
“Four Minute Men” – 75,000 men delivering short speeches all over the US spreading “patriotic pep”
Creel and the CPI stirred up American passion as people voluntarily complied with suggestions
Government War Policies
Germans made up 8% of the US population; rumors spread of
Espionage – spying

Espionage Act of 1917/ Sedition Act of 1918 – established penalties for people stealing information, being disloyal, or speaking against the US government
(Liberty cabbage, Salisbury Steaks, and no Beethoven)
1,900 people prosecuted under those laws (most anti-war Socialist and Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) members, Eugene V. Debs and “Big Bill” Haywood
Critics against the government were censored and punished, they argued the 1st Amendment was violated
Schenck v. United States (1919) –upheld legality of laws, arguing freedom of speech can be revoked when such speech posed a “clear and present danger” to the nation
Fear at Home
War Industries Board (WIB) – organized to coordinate the production of war materials, controlled the flow of raw materials, constructed factories and occasionally set prices
National War Labor Board (NWLB) 1918 – organized to mediate labor disputes to avoid strikes (War Department rule: Work or Fight)
Sam Gompers's AF of L (
American Federation of Labor
) supported the war while other more radical groups suffered (IWW)
Great Migration – w/ immigration halted and the men off to war or on strike, 500,000 African Americans left the south to take factory jobs in the north (Chicago, NY, Detroit)
Women served in non-combat positions and only the Army Nursing Corps went overseas (Help oversees and be rewarded at home)
Factory Mobilization
Food Administration – headed by Herbert Hoover, increase food production while reducing civilian consumption(“victory gardens”) (“Wheatless Wednesdays, Meatless Tuesdays)
Hoover cut consumption by ¼ while tripling exports
Fuel Administration - introduced daylight savings time and shortened work weeks for factories (heatless Mondays, lightless nights, gasless Sundays)
To pay for the war the US govt. raised the income tax and sold Liberty Bond / Victory Bonds (the war cost $44 mil / day)
The Bond campaigned netted $21 billion (2/3 the cost of the war)
Ultimately the war cost $112 Billion with interest and benefits)
Economy at Home
Selective Service Act – required all men between 18-45 to register for the draft
A lottery determined draft order before a local draft board chose who was exempt and who had to serve (Army grew to 4 million)
Raising an Army
Battle of Argonne Forest 1918 – w/ German forces 40 miles from Paris a 1.2 million man US force, under General John Pershing, fought for 47 days to halt the German advance and counterattack to push them out of France (10% of American troops died)
Kaiser Wilhelm fled to Holland and an armistice was reached at 11 o’clock on the eleventh day of the eleventh month in 1918
US contributions included food, munitions, money, oil, manpower
End of the Great War
1918 Elections gave the Republicans the majority in Congress as Wilson left for Paris (1st president to travel to Europe)
Arguing and bickering between nations at the conference led to the organization of the
Big 4: Wilson-US, George-England, Orlando-Italy, and Clemenceau-France
(Orlando was frequently absent)
Wilson’s position and desire for the 14 Points put him a bad position with Italy, Japan, and France
Treaty of Versailles 1919 - Germany was stripped of its armed forces and forced to pay reparations (war damages) of $33 Billion to the Allies and a League of Nations was formed
Paris Peace Conference 1919
The Russian, Ottoman, German, and Austrian-Hungarian empires were dissolved
Yugoslavia, Poland, Czechoslovakia and 6 other countries were added from confiscated lands
To convince people the League of Nations was good Wilson toured the US (8000 miles /30 speeches /21days)
Wilson had a stroke in Sept. of 1919 paralyzing one side of his body (he did not meet with his cabinet for 7 months)
The Congress voted twice in 1920 but refused to ratify the treaty
After the war inflation rose 15%; the cost of living rose as prices climbed and demand increased
Aftermath of World War I
Election of 1920
Republican Ohio Senator Warren G Harding (VP Coolidge) ran against Democrat Ohio Governor James Cox (VP FD Roosevelt)
Harding issued contradicting and confusing statement from his Ohio home concerning the League of Nations gaining support from Pro and Anti League supporters
Harding is considered to some to be the worst president in history but won by the largest margin in any election up to 1920
The US government abandoned the League of Nations ideal with the election of Republican Harding
The US spurred the Security Treaty with France, forcing the French to build a large military presence, which led to an illegal German rearmament in response
“Square Deal” – Roosevelt’s plan for Progressive reforms to big business
“Square Deal”
3 C’s

control the corporations, consumer protection, and conservation of natural resources
Theodore Roosevelt 1901-1909
William Howard Taft 1909-1913
Woodrow Wilson 1913-1921
Progressive Presidents
16th Amendment
(1913) – created a direct income tax on individuals

17th Amendment
(1913)– direct election of Senators by state voters not state legislatures (end corruption by political machines)
18th Amendment

(1918) – prohibition of manufacture, distribution and sales ofalcohol

19th Amendment
(1920) – gave the right to vote to all women
Progressive Amendments
T.R. as President
Roosevelt changed the face of the federal government b/c now people looked to the govt. to solve economic and social problems
Republican congressional losses in 1910 combined with the Payne-Aldrich Bill (lowering protective tariffs) angered Democrats and TR
TR’s New Nationalism – urged the national govt. to increase its power to remedy economic and social abuses
Taft Faces Problems
Woodrow Wilson is able to win the presidency with only 41% of the popular vote
Taft and Roosevelt split Republican votes
WWI Propaganda
Normalcy – a return to “normal” life
Ohio Gang – cabinet appointees who were poker playing friends of President Harding
1923 Harding had an apparent heart attack going from Alaska to San Francisco
Calvin Coolidge (Silent Cal) became President and appointed a new cabinet
Coolidge believed prosperity rested on business leadership so government should stay out of the way
"Business of American people is business"

Harding/Coolidge Administration
Nativist Crisis
Early 1920s – an influx of immigrants combined w/ a recession led to a rise in racism and nativism
4 million soldiers returned to compete w/ millions of immigrants for jobs
Sacco and Vanzettit Case 1920 – 2 men were shot and killed and $15,000 payroll was stolen from a shoe factory
2 immigrants were arrested and found to be anarchist (Sacco owned a similar gun)
Found guilty 1921 and executed 1927
Eugenics ( a pseudo-science) – deals w/ improving heredity traits (“unfit” / “inferior”)
Eugenics argued to preserve superior American stock – White Anglo-Saxon Protestant (WASP)
supported by Woodrow Wilson
Ku Klux Klan (KKK) – this new version of the clan targeted immigrants, Catholics and Jews as well as African Americans

The new KKK grew to 4 million members but soon lost power from scandals and power struggles
Was against everything and everyone un-American
Racism Crisis
Morality and Social Values Crisis
Youth, Personal Freedom, and Technology influenced American society
Women began working b/c they needed money for material items and to get out of the home (some went to college for careers)
Cars allowed youths to escape watchful parents and finding new entertainment
Flappers – young, dramatic, stylish women, pursuing social freedoms; they smoke, drank, wore revealing clothes, and were unconventional
Consumer Credit – individual borrowing to buy goods (75% of radios bought on an installment plan)
Welfare Capitalism – companies allowed workers to buy stock, receive benefits, medical care and pensions
Open Shop – people could work w/o joining the union
Advertising and an expanding middle class created a nation of prosperity
Consumer Prosperity
Charles Lindbergh
Charles Lindbergh – 1927 flew the 1st solo transatlantic flight (NY to Paris)
1929 Commercial flights covered 355 cities
Charles Lindbergh Jr.?
After his solo fight Lindbergh flew to 49 states and rode in 1,200 miles of parades
He spoke out against Roosevelt and US involvement in WWII (prior to Pearl Harbor)
Accomplishments
Between 1931-35, he assisted a French surgeon in inventing the “artificial heart”
1954 Lindbergh became a consultant for Pan American Airlines, helping to design the Boeing 747 jet
1954 he won a Pulitzer Prize for his book, “Spirit of St. Louis”
1960s he spent time as a conservationist and protector of endangered animals (whales)
Charles Lindbergh Crisis
With advances in mechanized farming, Farmers could produce higher yields but with lower demand and increased supply, prices dropped
High tariffs were passed to protect American production
Andrew Mellon
– Secretary of Finance for 3 presidents
Mellon believed the govt. should run like a business, he cut government spending and reduced the tax rate
Farm Crisis
Evolutionary Crisis
Clarence Darrow (Evolution) VS. William Jennings Bryan (Creationist)
Fundamentalist believed the bible was literally true and w/o error (feared moral decline)
Fundamentalist rejected Darwinism and supported Creationism
Scopes Trial 1925 – Scopes taught evolution in TN and was arrested, the ACLU (C. Darrow) supported Darwinism against Creationist (WJ Bryant)
Scopes was found guilty and fined $100
In response to the secular movement of the 1920s, there was a fundamentalist, progressive, and women's movement to ban alcohol
(18th Amendment)
The amendment was successful in rural, Protestant fundamentalist areas but not in large secular cities
Speakeasies – secret bars where people could get illegal alcohol after passage of the 18th Amendment
Organized crime
(Al Capone)
made a fortune provide illegal alcohol from 1920-1927
Alcohol Crisis
Carl Sandburg/TS Eliot -common speech poets
Ernest Hemmingway – novelist w/ “heroic antiheroes” (For Whom the Bell Tolls)
F Scott Fitzgerald - novelist w/ glamorous characters chasing futile dreams (Great Gatsby)
Babe Ruth (Baseball),
Jack Dempsey (Boxing),
Bobby Jones (Golf),
Red Grange (College FB)
Silent Movies (Charlie Chaplin) and
Radio Programs became popular (mass media)
New “Heroes”
Harlem Renaissance – a period of African American racial pride, political organization, and artistic expression centered in Harlem, NY
Early 1900s subway expansion (Lenox Ave: later Malcolm X Blvd) was meant to make Harlem the next suburb of white Manhattan
1905-06 Recession doomed the real-estate speculators and the market; new town homes and condos were left empty
Harlem Renaissance
Harlem Today - Lenox Ave

Harlem in the 1920s
Harlem Today

Harlem Today

Center of Harlem Nightlife in the 1930s

Why Harlem?
Philip A Payton - “father of Harlem” persuaded white building owners to turn over management of the buildings to him
Advertisement in The New York Age in 1906 began:
"Colored Tenants, Attention! After much effort I am now able to offer to my people for rent; several apartment houses of a class never before rented to our people."
1914 - 3/4 of the black population of New York and any African American of prominence lived in Harlem (Marcus Garvey, A. Philip Randolph, Langston Hughes, Malcolm X)
Early Harlem Apts.
Harlem became a magnet for young African Americans interested in arts, writing, or politics
Langston Hughes –Through poetry, novels, and essays he promoted equality, condemned racism and celebrated African American culture, humor, and spirituality
A. Philip Randolph - labor leader,organized the Brotherhood of Sleepingcar Porters, the 1st unionization of the Pullman rail company, proposed a 1950s March on Washington to demand freedom and jobs

Harlem Renaissance
A. Philip Randolph’s Town House
Louis Armstrong/ Duke Ellington
– played improvisational forms of early jazz (Cotton Club)
Bessie Smith
– sang a soulful style of music known as the “blues”
African American Culture
Cotton Club - all black performers, all white customers
Slumming - going to Harlem for the night then rushing back home
As Harlem filled up with African Americans the police and fire units remained white and filled by people outside the Harlem community
This outside presence led to prejudice and discrimination which ultimately led to violence
“the only reason the police come here to to protect the money and that damn bank”
When the immigrant community of 5 points was no longer, after movement out of Lower East Side to Hells Kitchen, Harlem was labeled as the world’s most dangerous city
Harlem Renaissance
Marcus Garvey – from Jamaica, founded the UNIA (Universal Negro Improvement Association)
, called for
“Negro Nationalism”
glorifying black culture/traditions (followed the ideas of Booker T Washington)
African American Politics
Original NAACP Harlem Office

Garvey stated African Americans could gain economic and political power by educating themselves (advocated black/white segregation)
Garvey’s UNIA group boasted 6-11 million members and followers (middle class and upper class blacks separated themselves from Garvey – WEB Dubois and the NAACP)
Garvey started the Black Star Steam Line to stimulate trade with Africa and start a country in Liberia
Garvey was arrested in 1923 and deported in 1927
Isolationism – the US wanted to be left alone to pursue its own prosperity
Dawes Plan – US would loan money to Germany so they can make payment to France and England so France and England could make their loan payment to the US
5 Power Naval Limitation Treaty – Italy, Japan, US, GB, France reduce their navy
Nine Power Treaty – guaranteed Chinese Independence (Japan upset)
War Avoidance Crisis
1928 Kellogg – Briand Pact – abolished war, all countries signing it could not fight and had to end disputes through peaceful means
15 countries originally signed - 62 Countries total
Abolishing War
Crisis Lane
Lindbergh's child was kidnapped from his bedroom and a ransom note was mailed
Lindbergh’s paid the $50,000 ransom after 12 notes
May 1932, a decomposing body was found 4 miles from the house
Bruno Hauptmann was found guilty and executed 1936 despite claims of innocence
1938 Lindbergh accepted the German Metal of Honor from Hermann Goering
1944 As a civilian, Lindbergh flew 50 combat missions in the Pacific campaign against Japan
Mass Production – large scale production
Assembly Line – divided simple tasks that unskilled workers could do separately
NBC (National Broadcasting Company)
and
CBS (Columbia Broadcasting Systems)
competed for radio airtime
Consumer Prosperity
NAACP –National Association for the Advancement of Colored People – founded in 1910 to battle segregation and discrimination against African Americans (WEB DuBois)
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