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Unit 17 - Psychology of Sports Performance Group Dynamics
Transcript of Unit 17 - Psychology of Sports Performance Group Dynamics
Group Dynamics in Team Sports
“two or more persons who are interacting with one another in such a manner that each person influences and is influenced by each other person” (Shaw, 1981, P.8)
Is there a difference between a group or a team?
Think about this in silence on your own for two minutes.
“a group exists when two or more people define themselves as members of it and when its existence is recognised by at least one other” (Brown, 1988, pp.2-3).
“Group dynamics, the scientific study of groups, is a worthwhile endeavour because of the prevalence of groups and the effect that they have on individuals” (Carron and Brawley, 2008 , P.216)
“A small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, common performance goals and an approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable” (Moorhead and Griffiths, 1998)
“A collective identity, a sense of shared purpose, structured patterns of interaction, structured methods of communication, personal and task interdependence, and interpersonal attraction” (Carron, 1988, P.7)
Characteristics of a team
Get up and find a partner to discuss your thoughts with
Now in your pairs find another pair to team up with and come up with a universal belief on whether there is a difference between groups or teams, and if there is, what is it?
did those athletes
describe? Can you
think of anymore?
Complete section one of your work books
Stages of Group Development
In order for groups to become teams, Tuckman (1965) suggested that the group much go through four developmental stages;
Remember the Titans?
Think of the "Remember the Titans" clip and Complete section two of your workbooks
5th Stage - Adjourning
After further research Tuckman suggested he had uncovered a 5th stage of group development - Adjourning
"Unforming" the group - letting go of the group structure and moving on
Dissolution - termination of roles
When might "adjourning" apply?
Work in pairs to complete section three of your workbooks
Once a team is at the performing stage, there are still factors which can effect performance
Model of Group Effectiveness (Steiner, 1972)
Steiner put forward a model that could explain group effectiveness
Suggested that a team is more important than individual talents coming together
He suggested group productivity could be measured by the following equation:
Actual Productivity = Minus
Losses due to faulty group process
Motivational Losses -
not everybody gives 100%
Coordination Losses -
team interacts poorly, players don't connect
Familiarisation stage – members get to know each other and decide if they belong in the group
Assess strengths and weaknesses of other members
Learn roles, and decide whether they can fill those roles
Formal leaders tend to be directive
Conflict between group members develop
Individuals/cliques question the position and authority of the leader
Conflicts develop because demands are placed upon group members
Formal leader moves from a directive role to a more guidance like role
Instability, hostility, and conflict is replaced with cooperation and solidarity
Group cohesion develops as members focus on team and not individual goals
Group satisfaction and mutual respects develop
Leaders entrust group members with greater responsibility
Team progresses and functions as a unit
Zero conflicts, and shared goals and objectives
The group is capable of making their own decisions, therefore leader can adopt a more relaxed approach
Applied implications of Steiner's Model
The role of the coach is to:
Increase relevant resources (through training, instruction, and recruiting)
Reduce process losses (through enhancing cohesion and emphasising individual contributions to the team)
Complete Section four of your work books
In 1913 Ringelmann facilitated a rope pulling task
He observed individuals in groups of two, three, and eight pulling on a rope.
The relative performance of each individual slowly declined as the number of people in the group increased
Group size increase = individual productivity decrease (by as much as 50%)
Individuals feel others are not working as hard as themselves.
Believe that there effort will make little difference
Believe that others will compensate for their lack of effort
Individuals conserve energy when they believe it will go un-noticed
In pairs come up with a real life example of the Ringelmann Effect
"Social loafing is the term psychologists use for the phenomenon in which individuals within a group or team is put forth less than 100% effort because of losses in motivation. " (Weinberg and Gould, 2011).
Individual contributions are not identified or are despensable
Some working harder than others
Lack of confidence
Afraid of failure
Links to Tuckman's idea
Links to Ringelmann's idea
last but not least
Interactive Vs Coactive Groups
Require members to work together in order to achieve a successful performance
Performance will depend on the interaction and co-ordination between different members within the group
Require members to achieve success in their individual games, events or performances to achieve overall success.
There is no direct link between members during performance
Complete section five in your task book
P5 - identify four factors which influence group dynamics and performance in team sports
M3 - explain four factors which influence group dynamics and performance in team sports
D2 - analyse four factors which influence group dynamics and performance in team sports
Identify, explain and analyse 4 factors (Choose 2 x factors from ‘group processes’, 1 x from ‘cohesion’ and 1 x from leadership) which influence group dynamics and performance in team sports. You are required to provide sporting examples wherever possible throughout your work.
Why study group dynamics?
Interactive or Coactive?