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Teaching Students to Engage with and Incorporate their Sourc
Transcript of Teaching Students to Engage with and Incorporate their Sourc
"Yes, but . . ."
Sources inserted as a patchwork of direct quotations or block quotations
Sentences pasted directly from a source with little original prose
Authentic, effective paraphrases are absent because students
don’t understand the source
lack the vocabulary to rephrase the source
don’t trust their own voice.
They Say, I Say
Academic writing is a conversation (Kenneth Burke's Parlor metaphor)
We frame our ideas as responses to others
Our argument motivates our writing,
but so do the responses
representing standard views:
"It's often said . . . "
"Astronomers tend to agree . . ."
representing implied or assumed views
"One implication of this argument is . . . "
"Readers often assume that . . ."
representing ongoing debates
"On one hand, evidence indicates that _____. On the other hand . . ."
While casual observers see ________, trained researchers . . ."
Agree, but with a difference or addition
"Yes, but . . ." or "Yes, and . . ."
Disagree and explain why
"This argument is incomplete . . .
"The author misrepresents . . . "
Plant a Naysayer/Anticipate Counterarguments
(“Skeptics may object that ___, but I find that . . .”)
Frame quotations by
1) attributing the words to someone
2) quoting only the most significant phrases or sentences
3) interpreting or contextualizing the words
Betty Garcia, President of Mothers Against Drunk Driving, argues that over half of alcohol-related traffic fatalities are "completely preventable by the wholly reasonable use of breathalyzer switches" in the cars of first-time offenders. Her rhetoric, however, sharply contrasts with statutes in most states, which reserve breathalyzer switches for serial offenders.
All of these responses require a rich vocabulary of
, which many students don't have.