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Transcript of Conflict Map
Phelps Dodge Corporation; Labor Union & Miners Contrasting Beliefs Phelps Dodge Corporation: Phelps Dodge Exists to Make Profit. Unions/Miners Represent Unnecessary Expense
Unions & Miners: Reasonable Contract – Justly Deserved. Victims of Phelps Dodge’s Might, Power, and Political Capital Hundreds of unemployed workers; families displaced and decimated; communities turned into virtual ghost towns; human rights violated; corporation ruined; labor unions disempowered.
The silver-lining in this conflict is woman became empowered and realized that their "place" in society extended far beyond the confines of homemaker duties. Phelps Dodge Corporation Holding The Line:
Women in the Great Arizona Mine Strike of 1983 The contract between the Phelps Dodge Corporation and their copper miners was expiring. Kennecott, Asarco, Magma Copper, and Inspiration Consolidated had just settled with their workers and a new contract was in effect. However, Phelps Dodge refused to negotiate. The copper miners of AJO, Morenci, and Clifton understood that copper prices had significantly declined over the recent years. Their proposal was to offer a renewed three-year contract with frozen wages and a cost-of-living adjustment tied to CPI. Phelps Dodge, on the other hand, wanted the workers to take further cuts in wages, benefits, vacation, holiday pay, and eliminate the cost of living adjustment. Functions & Purposes Union/Miners: Renewal of Union Contract & Cost of Living Protection
Phelps Dodge: Decertification of Union, Control over Labor, Increased Profitability Outcome Third Parties:
Other Labor Unions
Arizona Department of Public Safety
Arizona Governor Babbitt
Attorneys & Union Negotiators
Phelps Dodge Executives Secondary Parties:
Members of the Women’s Auxiliary
Replacement Workers (Scabs)
The Townspeople of AJO, Morenci, and Clifton
Miners’ Family Members
Celebrities/Well-Known Labor Leaders/Benefactors On July 1st, 1983, 1400 copper workers walked out of the mines – they were on strike! To combat the union efforts, Phelps Dodge sought and won an injunction barring the workers from picketing at the gates of the mine – therefore, their women, their wives, stepped in to take their place. At the same time, 600 non-union workers and a handful of replacement workers took turns at 12 hour shifts – keeping the mine operating at 40% capacity. Conflict Context For every action, there was an unprecedented reaction. The National Guard was called in to keep the peace, the company town of Clifton was occupied as if a foreign adversary had just invaded, and every possible effort was made to “bust the strike”. Conflict Context This is the story of women who spent two years on a picket line holding together the body and soul of the strike. And it’s the story of a corporation using every ounce of power and political capital it had to decertify the unions and return themselves to a state of worker control. Conflict Context Causes & Consequences Causes Decline in Copper Prices
Phelps Dodge Anti-Union Position
Wants & Needs of Miners/Unions
Human/Civil Rights Violations Consequences Job Loss
Mining Operations Closed
Phelps Dodge Business Damaged
Decertification of Union
Injunctions/Arrests, & Evictions
Marriages Collapse & Families Suffer
Communities Become Ghost Towns
Loss of Respect for Law/Government
Cultural Shift – Role of Women & Men Reversed Goals Interests Union: New Contract with COLA
Phelps Dodge: Reduced Union Wages, Benefits, Elimination of COLA Union: Just Pay for Just Work. Protection from Inflation
Phelps Dodge: Decertification of Union. Control over Labor & Wages Dynamics Dynamics Women: Played vital role in the strikes - Found their Voice and Became Empowered
Unions & Phelps Dodge: Became Disempowered. Unable to Bargain Collectively
Media, Politicians, Community, Government: Each Became Participants in the Process - Some Were Exploiters and Manipulators While Others Were Fighting For Their Rights and Respective Livelihoods and Interests Regulation Potential External Limiting Factors Internal Limiting Factors Union: Company Towns, Parties Not in Control of Their Own Destiny (I.E., Supreme Court, NLRB, Governor)
Phelps Dodge: Public Perception Union: No Where Else to Work or Live. Decisions Limited by Human Needs. Political Climate is Anti-Union
Phelps Dodge: Not Enough Qualified Replacement Workers to Operate Mine. Empowered Member's of the Women's Auxillary: "Look at us. At the beginning of this strike we were just a bunch of ladies." DPS Officer: "If we could just get rid of these broads, we'd have it made.' Member's of the Women's Auxillary: "Nothing can ever be the same as it was before.'