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American History-Causes of the Civil War
Transcript of American History-Causes of the Civil War
The Kansas-Nebraska Act repealed the Missouri Compromise, allowing slavery in the territory north of the 36° 30´ latitude. Introduced by Senator Stephen Douglas of Illinois, the Kansas-Nebraska Act stipulated that the issue of slavery would be decided by the residents of each territory, a concept known as popular sovereignty. After the bill passed on May 30, 1854, violence erupted in Kansas between pro-slavery and anti-slavery settlers, More than 200 settlers were killed and the territory earned the nickname "Bleeding Kansas."
Dred Scott Decision
A Supreme Court decision made in the case of Dred Scott v. Sandford
Dred was a slave who lived in the free state of Illinois before he was taken to the slave state of Missouri
Dred sued seeking his freedom
The courts decision was that no African Americans, whether free of slave, could be made be American citizens and so had no right to sue in federal court
The Supreme Court said that Dred Scott was still a slave because he went back to Missouri with his owner
They also said that a slave is property and people can take their property anywhere they want, so laws against slavery were unconstitutional.
Slavery was now allowed in all territories
The Lincoln–Douglas Debates of 1858 were a series of seven debates between Abraham Lincoln, the Republican candidate for the Senate in Illinois, and Senator Stephen Douglas, the Democratic Party candidate
Major issues discussed were slavery and state's rights
Lincoln believed that slavery needed to end
Douglas believed it was up to the will of the people – if they wanted to end it, then they would not allow it in new territories
Douglas won the election, but Lincoln became well-known because of their debates.
Election of 1860
Lincoln had almost no support in the South however he swept the Northern states where the majority of the voting population lived
South did not trust Lincoln
Afraid he would immediately abolish slavery everywhere
Said they would secede if he won
The results of the election brought the country to Civil War. South Carolina, whose voters believed that a Republican president would restrict slavery in the new territories, and then attempt to prohibit it completely, supported secession. They believed slavery was an American “institution,” and that their agricultural economy would collapse without it.
The Civil War Era changed the course of American History
What were the major differences between the Northern States and Southern States that led to the fighting of the Civil War.
Having to do with businesses and factories
Today, where do we find industrial areas?
Having to do with cities or towns
The massive production of goods through the use of machines and tools in factories
Pots and pans
A large building where workers make goods
The business of buying and selling goods
Also known as commerce
What do we usually give someone when we make a trade?
The business of sending goods on ships, trains, etc.
A system of transportation using trains
Man-made waterways connecting bodies of water so that ships can travel between them.
What led to the rapid growth of cities in the North?
How did the urban setting in the North affect how people lived socially?
How did the urban setting in the North affect how people lived economically?
Topics for Discussion
The production of food and goods through farming
Today, in what areas do we see farming?
Having to do with the countryside and agriculture
A large farm found in warm climates where crops are grown.
What is the difference between a farm and a plantation?
A crop which is grown for money, such as cotton, sugar, and rice
A machine that quickly and easily separates the cotton fibers from the seed invented by Eli Whitney
A form of forced labor in which people are considered to be, or treated as, the property of others
What impact did the rural areas in the South have on how people lived socially?
What impact did the rural areas in the South have on how people lived economically?
Why was slavery so important to southern cotton growers?
Topics for Discussion
What kinds of jobs did slaves do?
What contributed to the economic divide between the Northern States and the Southern States?
How did the invention of the cotton gin change history?
Topics for Discussion
In an effort to preserve the balance of power in Congress between slave and free states, the Missouri Compromise was passed in 1820 admitting Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state. Furthermore, with the exception of Missouri, this law prohibited (or made illegal)slavery in the Louisiana Territory north of the 36° 30´ latitude line
– an agreement that is reached after people with opposing views each give up some of their demands
Compromise of 1850
The Compromise of 1850 consists of five laws passed in September of 1850 that dealt with the issue of slavery.
Major points in the compromise were:
It allowed California to enter the Union as a free state California became a free state
Utah Territory and New Mexico Territory created, without a decision about slavery
Now illegal to buy or sell slaves in Washington, D.C.
The Fugitive Slave Law was passed, requiring northerners to return runaway slaves to their owners under penalty of law.
An abolitionist, who strongly opposed slavery
On October 16, 1859, he led 21 men on a raid of the federal arsenal at Harper's Ferry, Virginia.
His plan to arm slaves with the weapons he and his men seized from the arsenal
Killed the mayor and two others, then locked selves in the arsenal
After two days, the U.S. marines stormed the building and captured Brown and his men.
His attempt was unsuccessful and most of his men were killed or captured
Brown was wounded, captured, and later tried and convicted of treason
born into slavery
led other slaves on a rebellion in 1831
Turner and his men moved through Virginia killing some 60 white men, women, and children
The rebellion ended within two day and Turner was eventually captured, convicted and executed for his revolt
As a result of the fear created by Turner's rebellion even harsher laws were passed against slaves
an American politician from Illinois and the designer of the Kansas–Nebraska Act
Ran for President against Abraham Lincoln.
Known as a great orator, the debates he held with Lincoln are some of the most famous in American History.
a Representative from Illinois, legendary for his oratory
Lincoln used the quote,"A house divided can not stand." many times during his debates
Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President of the United States, serving from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865.
Frederick Douglass was one of the most famous abolitionists in American history
born into slavery in Maryland
taught the alphabet and to read by his master's wife at age 12
Continued to teach himself and read newspapers
Escaped to freedom in 1838
Met other famous abolitionists such as William Lloyd Garrison
By the time of the Civil War, Douglass was one of the most famous black men in the country, known for his speeches on the condition of the black race and issues of women's rights
- a person opposed to slavery and in favor of ending it right away
William Lloyd Garrison
a prominent American abolitionist, journalist, and social reformer
best known as the editor of the abolitionist newspaper
, which he founded in 1831 and published in Massachusetts
founded the American Anti-Slavery Society in 1833
Harriett Beecher Stowe
an American abolitionist and author
Uncle Tom's Cabin
(1852) was a depiction of life for African Americans under slavery
it reached millions as a novel and play, and became influential in the United States and energized anti-slavery forces in the American North, while provoking widespread anger in the South.
Harriet Tubman led more than 300 people from slavery to freedom in the mid-1800s. Born a slave in Maryland, Tubman escaped captivity at the age of 25. She returned to the South 19 times to help other slaves flee to the North. She traveled by night, looking for the North Star. She has become the most famous conductor of the Underground Railroad and earned the nickname "Moses."
-person who flees or tries to escape
A network of people to help runaway slaves escape to free states in the North and to Canada
– a place where runaway slaves hid, such as homes, cellars, barns, and places of work
– a person who hid the slaves and guided them during their escape to freedom
– a runaway slave
– line between Maryland and Pennsylvania that came to symbolize the line between slave states and free states
The Underground Railroad
One month after the election, South Carolina seceded
Over the next two months, so did Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas
Also known as Confederacy – the government set up from 1861 to 1865 of eleven southern states, each of which had previously declared their succession from the Union.
The Confederate States of America
Now 15 slave states and 15 free states
California wants to become a state as a free state
Free states say CA should be free because the soil was free when ruled by Mexico
Slave states say CA should allow slavery or they will secede from the Union
– to withdraw formally from an organization or nation
In 1820, there were 11 slave states and 11 free states and the Missouri territory wanted to become a state
The decision of whether to allow slavery would make the number of states (and therefore the power) uneven.
What should be done?
What is a territory?
How does a territory become a state?
What is a state?
A state is a political and geographical unit that makes up a union
Each state in the United States has its own state constitution and can make many of its own laws
– the system of laws that says the rights of people and the powers of the government
A large area of land owned by the United States that is not yet a state
Congress creates the territory and sets up its laws
When 5,000 adult males live in the territory, they can elect representatives and make many of their own laws
When 60,000 adult males live in the territory, they can ask Congress to become a state with their own state constitution
Sounds good, so what’s the problem?
People in Congress from the Southern states wanted to allow slavery in new territories being formed.
People in Congress from the Northern states did not want to allow slavery.
A territory that allowed slavery would most likely become a state that allowed slavery.
The Industrial North
The Agrarian South
-a concept that refers to the ideas that states possess certain rights and political powers in relation to the federal government