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School Shootings

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on 8 April 2014

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Transcript of School Shootings

PRO-ACTIVE measures
Who commits school shootings?

Males who attend the school themselves or have in the past

Why are school shooting committed?

It is usually as an act of revenge for a perceived ostracizing or personal conflict from a student or group of students.

These can be imagined or exaggerated illusions in the students mind, or an actual personal conflict that has happened to upset the student.
Many end in suicideThe impact of individuals who would be impacted if a tragedy such as a school shooting occurred would be, students, teachers, parents, siblings, entire school faculty, School Board/State of NM, law enforcement, community, and policy makers. The impact of individuals who would be impacted if a tragedy such as a school shooting occurred would be, students, teachers, parents, siblings, entire school faculty, School Board/State of NM, law enforcement, community, and policy makers. The impact of individuals who would be impacted if a tragedy such as a school shooting occurred would be, students, teachers, parents, siblings, entire school faculty, School Board/State of NM, law enforcement, community, and policy makers. The impact of individuals who would be impacted if a tragedy such as a school shooting occurred would be, students, teachers, parents, siblings, entire school faculty, School Board/State of NM, law enforcement, community, and policy makers.
Who & Why
APS Policies on Threats & Bullying
Existing Resources
Same -day emergency suicide referral to Southwest Family Guidance Center
Threat Assessment
Zero tolerance policy for statements of a threatening nature to other students, or staff.
Annual anti-bullying lesson (video, counselor taught, or assembly)
Annual mental health awareness (reporting self-harm or depression)
Zero tolerance policy for weapon possession.
Incident Investigation Form
Crisis Procedures (Get to safety, call 911, stay calm, afoid confronting assailant "don't be a hero")
Monday, April 7, 2014
MSW, No. 521
Organization's already doing something

About School Shootings
Preventative Measures
School Shootings
Arcus, D. (2002). School shooting fatalities and school corporal punishment: A look at the states. Aggressive Behavior, 28(3), 173-183. doi:

Baby Kaely (2013, January, 11). Sandy Hook Elementary Tribute song "Heaven" by... directed and produced by Will i. am.
Retrieved April 1, 2014, from youtube

“Bullying and Cyberbullying Prevention.” APS, 2013. Retrieved from http://www.aps.edu/

Estevez, E., Musitu, G., Herrero, J. (2005). The influence of violent behavior and
victimization at school on psychological distress: The role of parents and teachers. Journal of Family Therapy, 32(3), 143-146.

Kalish, R., Kimmel, M. (2010). Suicide by mass murder: Masculinity, aggrieved entitlement,
and rampage school shootings. Health Sociology Review 19(4), 451-464.

Knoll Iv, J. L. (2013). Mass shootings: Research and lessons. Psychiatric Times, 30(2), 1-8.

Mongan, P., & Walker, R. (2012). “The road to hell is paved with good intentions”: A historical, theoretical, and legal analysis of zero-tolerance
Weapons policies in American schools. Preventing School Failure, 56(4), 232-240. doi: 10.1080/1045988X.2011.654366

Salgado, R. (2005). Protecting Student Speech Rights While Increasing School Safety:
School Jurisdiction and the Search for Warning Signs in a Post-Columbine/Red Lake
Environment. Brigham Young University Law Review, 2005(5), 1371-1412.

Stevens, J. E. (2014, 3 31). At reedley (ca) high school suspensions drop 40%, expulsions 80% in two years. Retrieved from
Tonso, K. L. (2002). Reflecting on Columbine High: Ideologies of Privilege in
‘Standardized’ Schools. Educational Studies, 33(4), 391-406.

Vice News (2014, January 29). Vice on HBO Season One: Guns & Ammo (Episode 3). Retrieved April 5, 2014, from: youtube

Wetterneck, C., Sass, D. A., & Davies, W. H. (2005). Perceptions of risk factors for school violence: Concordance with FBI risk profile. Journal of
School Violence, 4(2), 153-166. doi: 10.1300/J202v04n02_10

Samantha Carrillo, Riann Cecil, Steven Davis, Caitlin Dralle, Pamela Munoz, Kellie Tomlin
2000: 4
2001: 5
2002: 2
2003: 3
2004: 0
2005: 2
2006: 4
2007: 2
2008: 3
2009: 0
2010: 1
2011: 2
2012: 4
New Life Baptist Academy
Positive Behavioral Interventions and Support
250 Students
20 Teachers, 5 with loaded handguns
Each carrying teacher must have 6 months of training
Children frequently do active shooter trainings
Younger students hide while upperclassmen are trained to attack the "intruder"
Called the "Pastors Warriors"
Hand selected by the pastor
They receive tactical training once a week
Are taught a swarm strategy

"If you're going to die, might as well die fighting."
Relevant Power Structures
Community and Organizations
Comparison of two APS
High Schools
**When a child doesn't know how to read, what do we do?
**When a child doesn't know how to swim what do we do?
Zero Tolerance Policy
Use of PBIS
Janie Pointer LISW
Independently licensed social worker, employed by Hobbs Public Schools, in Hobbs New Mexico.

Framework that provides positive behavior with strategies that focus on all learners social-emotional behavioral needs
Policies that mandate predetermined, typically harsh consequences or punishments (such as suspension or expulsion) for a wide degree of rule violations
Manzano High School vs. La Cueva High School
Tacticle training
Students practice active shooter situations frequently
"If you dont be quiet youre going to die."
Could be cultivating fear in the children/adolescents
Even though staff are trained for 6 months, but accuracy might not be the same as an individual specifically trained for these situations (ie SWAT

A code black is called in which the teachers will lock all of the doors. Students and teachers will remain in the classrooms until an all clear is called
Drills on code blacks are done once every quarter

All Hobbs Schools are under construction, creating what they call a Safety Hallway
Antibullying programs in school.
Part of the antibullying program is where students & parents can anonymously leave comments about being bullied or knowing someone who is being bullied--every comment must be looked into by a counselor or social worker
All counselors and social workers meet weekly to discuss any concern they might have about a student or situation within their particular school
Have a crisis team consisting of counselors and social workers, headed up by the schools psychologist
are called to any given school any time of the day
Active Shooter Situation
More lockdown drills
Create awareness for both students and parents
regarding saftey issues
that its ok to ask for help
Implementation of parenting classes to help them notice signs and symptoms (ie dropping grades, mood changes, etc)
Downplay social media --has a large affect on bullied individuals
Strengths of Existing Resources
Weaknesses of Existing Resources
Lack of frequent lockdown drills
Layout of APS schools
No security guards at many of schools in APS
Lack of education for teachers and staff
Schools do not address students social-emotional behavioral needs-- just behavior--on a daily basis
1.) What information have you (the student body) received at school in regards to bullying? (aka: how many videos have been shown, has a counselor come to your class to give an info session, have you received paperwork to read, etc)

2.) Have you (the student body) been given any information on mental health related issues such as depression? (particularly, thoughts of suicide, self-harm, or harming others)

3.) Does your school encourage you (the student body) to tell a friend or teacher if you have thoughts of harming yourself or others? How often do they reiterate this message throughout the year?

4.) From a peer perspective, why do you think students might choose to bring a gun to school and harm their classmates?

5.) From an insiders perspective, what ideas might you suggest to proactively prevent school shootings?
Impacted Students Survey
Impacted Community
Steven Gallegos

Interim Chief of Police at Albuquerque Public Schools
Frequent lockdown drills
Tactical training (teachers & students?)
Education for teachers, students, and parents
:build awareness, train individuals to notice signs & symptoms of a possible crisis
ie mood changes, dropping grades, preoccupation with guns, etc.
Mandatory mental health screens
Changing school environment
Safety hallways, metal detectors, bullet proof glass, etc.
Anonymous tip line located on school website to report bullying and/or suspicious statements made by student, teacher, parent, etc.
Develop school emergency plans
specifically for school shootings
Albuquerque Public Schools wil provide a supportive climate for learning and working that maximizes student achievement
Schools perform:
12 emergency drills annually, including students in the classroom and at lunch/recess.
Emergency drills consist of
9 fire drills
2 lockdown drills
1 evacuation drill

All Albuquerque Public Schools facilities need to provide safety procedures and appropriate trainings for students, teachers, parents, and staff that support personal safety and a violence/harassment-free environment.

Implementation of school-wide prevention programs and supports shall be based on needs of each school and best practices in coordination with the Albuquerque Public Schools Health and Wellness Department.

Although APS states that facilities provide trainings for students, staff and parents it seems to not have offered specific trainings for school shootings and focuses on lockdowns instead

-Increase the amount of lockdowns
-Implement shooting trainings
-Increase the amount of inperson trainings and decrease the amount of online trainings
(APS demands that employees complete 12 of their required trainings online, leaving only the Threat Assessment; Safety for Studnets to an in-class training)

Who Becomes a Mass Shooter?
Guide for Developing High-Quality School Emergency Operations Plans
Psychosocial factors
Self-esteem problems (e.g., low, fragile)
Persecutory or paranoid outlook
Depression and suicidality
Social rejection
Macro system factors
Culture and school ecology
Community characteristics
No all-encompassing "profile"; not easily predicted
Generally reveal their plan or intent to someone else (usually a peer or some trusted person not in position of authority)
Training for Preventing an Active Shooter Situation
Federal Government Researchers came up with warning signs used to enhance the detection and prevention of tragic attacks of violence

According to Alice Training
situations can be prevented by identifying, assessing and managing potential threats
recognizing the pre-attack warning signs and indicators can lead to avoiding tragic events
Responding to an active shooter situation should include:
courses of action that describe how students and staff can most effectively respond to an active shooter
law enforcement may not be present when shooting begins
no single response fits all active shooter situations
Training helps
individuals for real situations and makes sure there are options available for students and staff such as:
Alice Training
School Emergency Operations Plan
By having plans in place to keep students and staff safe, schools play a key role in taking preventative and protective measures to stop an emergency from occuring
Building Layout
Security Presence and Measures
Difference in Community & SES
National, State, & Local Government
Albuquerque Police Department
Southwest Family Guidance & other relevant agencies in the state
Gun-related Organizations and Corporations
La Cueva High School
Manzano High School
Where and Why Does It Occur?
entire school faculty
School Board/State of NM
law enforcement
policy makers
Media attention/social media
Fosters self-centered ways of thinking by promoting narcissism
Lure of instant fame, media's emphasis on celebrity status as a way to garner attention
Modeling after what they see
Many shooters are those who come from neighborhoods and homes that engage in, if not tacitly endorse, violence and abuse
Shootings happen more often at schools that permit corporal punishment
Some students likely sent the message that aggression and violence are “legitimate” ways to solve problems
Where and Why Does It Occur? (Contd.)
Can be committed in urban, suburban, and rural areas
Alienation vs. higher tolerance of violence
Differences in threats made online vs. offline
Online: Threats from those who are bullied, depressed
Offline: Delinquency, impulse control issues
Perceived threats to identity a possible motive
Dysfunctional family dynamics, peer pressure
Many with mental illness, causality problematic
Mission Statement:

Reduce the risk of school shooting at Albuquerque Public Schools
Ages of Victims
0 - 9 31 (6%)
10 - 19 300 (59%)
20 - 29 80 (16%)
30 - 39 28 (5%)
40 - 49 33 (6%)
50+ 38 (7%)
Ages of Shooters
0 - 9 5 (2%)
10 - 19 168 (69%)
20 - 29 36 (15%)
30 - 39 12 (5%)
40 - 49 14 (6%)
50+ 9 (4%)
What are
the odds?
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
U.S. Department of Education (Safe School Initiative)
the National Association of Education for Young Children
National Association of School Psychologists
National Child Traumatic Stress Network
National Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
No Bully
K-12 in the U.S. 1 in 53,925
U.S. High School 1 in 21,000
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