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Historical Approaches of Psychology

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Viviana Nuila

on 9 February 2016

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Transcript of Historical Approaches of Psychology

Structuralism and Functionalism
Wilhelm Wundt
(1832-1920)
William James
(1842-1910)
He tried to map out the basic structure of thought processes.
He developed a method of self observation called
introspection
to collect info, about the mind. With this method participants reported their thoughts and feelings.
He was a
structuralist
:

he was interested in the basic elements of human experience.
STRUCTURALISM
He's called the father of psychology in the U.S.
FUNCTIONALISM
He taught the first class in psychology at Harvard University in 1875.
Functionalists
study how mental processes help animals and people adapt to their environment.
He focused on the functions or purposes of the conscious mind and the goals or functions or purposes of behaviors.
James speculated that thinking, feeling, learning, and remembering -all activities of the mind- serve one major function: to help us survive as a species.
HISTORICAL APPROACHES
GESTALT
WHAT DO YOU SEE?
Gestalt theory states that "the whole is greater than the sum of the parts." And it is in a way, a protest against Wundt's Psychology. They thought that when sensory elements combined, they formed a new pattern or configuration. Our perception goes beyond from what the eyes can see, beyond our senses.
What does it say?
How was it born?
It all started with Max Wertheimer's train trip from Vienna to Rhineland.
He felt the train was moving when it wasn't. So he decided to go back to his lab and find out why he saw what he saw.
From this, theories of
visual perception
were
developed. These theories attempt to describe how people tend to organize visual elements into groups or unified wholes when certain principles are applied. These principles are:
or law of simplicity
The word above is clearly perceived as figure with the surrounding white space ground.







In this image, the figure and ground relationships change as the eye perceives the the form of a shade or the silhouette of a face.
FIGURE
Continuation occurs when the eye is compelled to move through one object and continue to another object.





Continuation occurs in the example above, because the viewer's eye will naturally follow a line or curve. The smooth flowing crossbar of the "H" leads the eye directly to the maple leaf.
Max Wertheimer
(1880-1943)
Kurt Kofka
(1886-1941)
Wolfgang Kohler
(1887-1967)
They were German psychologists that disagreed with
the principles of structuralism.
Perception is more than just the sum of its parts- it involves a "whole pattern" or, in German, a
Gestalt.
Gestalt psychologists studied how sensations are assembled into perceptual experiences.
How it came to be
Everything started when Max Wertheimer was going to travel by train from Vienna to Rhineland. He had the sensation that the train had moved, when in fact it handn't. Story has it he got off the train and decided to discover why he saw what he saw, and felt what he felt.
And that is how the laws of visual perception came to be. These type of laws try to describe how our brain organizes visual elements in groups or 'organized wholes" when certain principles are applied.
These laws are...
Continuation occurs when the eye is compelled to move through one object and continue to another object.





Continuation occurs in the example above, because the viewer's eye will naturally follow a line or curve. The smooth flowing crossbar of the "H" leads the eye directly to the maple leaf.
The word above is clearly perceived as figure with the surrounding white space ground.







In this image, the figure and ground relationships change as the eye perceives the the form of a shade or the silhouette of a face.
FIGURE AND GROUND
Inheritable Traits
Sir Francis Galton
(1822-1911)
English mathematician and scientist, wanted to understand how heredity influences a person's abilities, character, and behavior.
He studied eminent families and found that greatness runs in families. He concluded that genius or eminence runs in families...
Is there something wrong with his theory?
He made the question: Wouldn't the world be a better place if we could get rid of the less desirable people? He believed that "good" marriages produced talented offspring.
After recognizing the flaws of Galton's
theories, it was determined that: a person's
heredity and that person's environment interact to produce intelligence.
He invented procedures for directly testing the abilities and characteristics of a wide range of people. These tests were the primitive ancestors of modern personality and intelligence tests.
TRANSITION
CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
is a learning process that occurs through associations between an environmental stimulus (the bell) and a naturally occurring stimulus (the food).
PAVLOV
(1849-1936)
Results of his study =
Tool to explore the development of behavior.
It helped explain how certain behaviors and differences between individuals were the result of a learning process.
Behavior begins to be thought of as the result of previous experiences.
Words to know:

Inheritable, trait, procedure, flaw
Galton's writings raised the issue whether behavior is determined by heredity or environment -a subject that remains a focus of controversy today.
So what influences the intelligence of a person?
Full transcript